Tuesday, December 12, 2017

heart breaking story of a boneTB inflicted 12 year school boy, who becomes a writer by the name of ThaRaWin / သရဝဏ္ (ျပည္).12 dec. 2017

(heart breaking story of a boneTB inflicted 12 year school boy, who becomes a writer by the name of ThaRaWin / သရဝဏ္ (ျပည္).
The boy survives the  malady because of the sympathetic treatment of a school health doctor dr. daw than htay in Prome, Pegu division).

dr. daw than htay is a graduate of
Mandalay Institute of Medicine.
Formerly it is Faculty of Medicine,
an affiliate of Mandalay University,
Mandalay , Burma.
she settles in Rangoon, 
146 D, Prome road, 9 mile . 
MayanKone township, Rangoon,
Burma.

ThanHtayDr.
12 sep. 2016.

အခက္ခဲဆံုးကာလမ်ားကိုျဖတ္သန္းျခင္း 

သရ၀ဏ္(ျပည္) 

 က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ပန္းခင္းလမ္းကိုေလ်ွာက္ခဲ.ရသူမဟုတ္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္.ဘ၀တြင္အခက္အခဲမ်ားစြာကိုျဖတ္ေက်ာ္လာခဲ.ဖူးပါသည္ ။ ၾကံုခဲ.ဖူးေသာအခက္အခဲမ်ားအနက္ ေမ.မရနိုင္ေလာက္ေအာင္ဆိုးရြားေသာအျဖစ္မွာ က်ြန္ေတာ္.အသက္ ၁၂ နွစ္ခန္.တြင္ ေသေလာက္ေသာေရာဂါဆိုးၾကီးတစ္ခုကပ္ျငိလာျခင္းျဖစ္ေပသည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္၏ကေလးဘ၀အေပ်ာ္မ်ားအားလံုး နိဂံုးခ်ဳပ္ရသည္.ေန.တစ္ေန.သို.ေရာက္လာ၏ ။ထိုစဥ္ကက်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ အသက္(၁၂) နွစ္ ။ေျခာက္တန္းေအာင္၍ ခုနစ္တန္းတက္ရမည္.အခ်ိန္ျဖစ္သည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ငယ္စဥ္ကပင္ ေဘာလံုးကန္တာအလြန္၀ါသနာပါပါသည္ ။ ေဘာလံုးလည္းအေတာ္က်ြမ္းက်င္စြာကန္တတ္ပါသည္ ။ ဒီဇင္ဘာလသို.ေရာက္တိုင္း ေဘာလံုးအသင္းဖြဲ.ကာ ကေလး ေဘာလံုးျပိဳင္ပြဲမ်ားတြင္၀င္ေရာက္ယွဥ္ျမိဳင္ပါသည္ ။ အားအားရွိလ်င္ ရပ္ကြက္ထဲတြင္ေဘာလံုးကန္တိုင္းကစားေနၾကပါသည္ ။ ထိုေန.တြင္က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ခါတိုင္းေန.မ်ားလိုပင္ သူငယ္ခ်င္းမ်ားနွင္.ေဘာလံုးကန္ေနပါသည္ ။ သို.ေသာ္ေနလို.မေကာင္းပါ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္. ခါးထဲကလိုလို ၊တင္ပါးထဲကလိုလို ၊အရိုးထဲကလိုလို ေအာင္.ေနပါသည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္မခံရပ္နိုင္ေအာင္ နာလာသျဖင္.ေဘာလံုးဆက္မကစားေတာ.ပဲ အိမ္သို.ျပန္လာခဲ.ပါသည္ ။ အိမ္တြင္တစ္ေနကုန္အိပ္ေနပါသည္ ။ ထိုေန.မွစကာက်ြန္ေတာ္သည္သက္သာလာသည္မရွိပဲ တင္ပါးထဲမွ ေအာင္.ေအာင္.ေနပါသည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္.အေမကိုလည္းဖြင္.ေျပာသျဖင္.အေမသည္ ဘာလုပ္ရမလဲဆိုတာ အိမ္နားနီးခ်င္းမ်ားနွင္.ဖြင္.ဟတိုင္ပင္ပါသည္ ။ ထိုအခါ က်ြန္ေတာ္တို.အိမ္နားမွာဂိတ္ထိုးေသာဆိုက္ကားဆရာကိုတင္ထြန္းဆိုသူက သူသိေသာ အနွိပ္ဆရာတစ္ေယာက္ရွိေၾကာင္း ၊ က်ြန္ေတာ္ခံစားေနရေသာ ေ၀ဒနာကိုအနွိပ္ဆရာေကာင္းေကာင္းျဖင္. နွိပ္ခ်လိုက္လ်င္ ေသခ်ာေပါက္ေပ်ာက္ကင္းသက္သာသြားမည္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္းမစားရ၀ခမန္းေျပာပါသည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္.တစ္သက္တာတြင္ မိခင္ျဖစ္သူကိုေက်းဇူးအတင္ဆံုးအခ်က္မွာ စာေပဗဟုသုတရွိေသာအေမသည္ ဆိုက္ကားဆရာကိုတင္ထြန္းေျပာတာကိုလက္မံပဲ က်ြန္ေတာ္.ကို အနွိပ္သည္နွင္.ကုသဖို.ခါးခါးသီးသီးျငင္းဆန္ခဲ.ျခင္းပင္ျဖစ္သည္ ။ ထိုအစား အေမသည္က်ြန္ေတာ္.ကိုဆရာ၀န္နွင္.ျပဖို.ၾကိဳးစားသည္ ။ ပိုက္ဆံမတတ္နိုင္သျဖင္. ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ားအတြက္အခမဲ.ဖြင္.လွစ္ထားေသာ ျပည္ေဆးရံုၾကီး ေရွ.ရွိ ေက်ာင္းသားေဆးခန္း ကိုသြားေရာက္ျပသပါသည္ (ယခုေခတ္တြင္ေက်ာင္းေဆးခန္းစနစ္မရွိေတာ.တာ၀မ္းနည္းစရာျဖစ္သည္ ) ။ 

     က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ ေမြးဇာတာမဟာဘုတ္အရ အဂၤါ မရဏဖြားျဖစ္သည္ ။ မရဏဖြားျဖစ္သျဖင္. ငယ္ငယ္ရြယ္ရြယ္နွင္.ေသလ်င္ေသမည္ ။မေသလ်င္ေအာင္ျမင္ေက်ာ္ၾကားမည္ဟု ေဗဒင္ဆရာမ်ားကေဟာေလ.ရွိသည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ အတိတ္ကံအရ ငယ္ငယ္ရြယ္ရြယ္နွင္.ေသဖို.၊ ဒုကၡိတျဖစ္ဖို.ကံပါမလာဘူးထင္သည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္.မိခင္နွင္.အတူ ေက်ာင္းသားေဆးခန္းသို.ေရာက္သြားေသာအခါ အင္မတန္ေတာ္ျပီး ၊အင္မတန္သေဘာေကာင္းေသာ ဆရာ၀န္မတစ္ဦးနွင္.ေတြ.ၾကံဳရ၏ ။ ထိုဆရာ၀န္မွာေဒါက္တာေဒါ ္သန္းေဌးဟုေခါ ္သည္ ( ယခု ေရြွမင္းသားအက်ိဳးေဆာင္ကုမၼဏီပိုင္ရွင္ ကိုျမတ္သူ၀င္း၏မိခင္ျဖစ္သည္ ) ။ ေဒါက္တာေဒါ ္သန္းေဌးသည္ ထိုစဥ္ကမိသားစုနွင္.အတူ ျပည္ျမိဳ.မွာေနသည္ ။ သူကက်ြန္ေတာ္.ေရာဂါရာဇ၀င္ကိုေသေသခ်ာေခ်ာေမးသည္ ။က်ြန္ေတာ္ကလမ္းေလ်ွာက္လ်င္ တင္ပါးဆံုရိုးထဲမွမခံမရပ္နိုင္ေအာင္ ေအာင္.ေၾကာင္း နာက်င္ေၾကာင္းေျပာျပသည္ ။ ေဒါက္တာေဒါ ္သန္းေဌးသည္ လက္ေတြ.စမ္းသပ္ခ်င္သည္ဟုဆိုျပီး  က်ြန္ေတာ္.ကိုတစ္ကိုယ္လံုးအ၀တ္အစားမ်ားခ်ြတ္ေစျပီး သူ.ေရွ.တြင္လမ္းေလ်ာက္ျပခိုင္းသည္ ။က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ေျခလွမ္းတစ္လွမ္းလွမ္းတိုင္းမ်က္၇ည္ေပါက္ေပါက္က်ကာ လမ္းေလ်ွာက္ျပရသည္ ။ သူစိတ္ေၾကနပ္ေအာင္ေလ်ွာက္ျပျပီးေသာအခါ ေဒါက္တာေဒါ ္သန္းေဌးသည္ က်ြန္ေတာ္.အရိုးကို ျပည္ေဆးရံုဓါတ္မွန္ဌာနသို.သြားကာ အခမဲ.ဓါတ္မွန္ရိုက္ခိုင္းသည္ ။ ဓါတ္မွန္ရလာေသာအခါ က်ြန္ေတာ္.ဓါတ္မွန္ကို ရန္ကုန္ျမိဳ. ၊ေရြွဘံုသာလမ္းရွိ ဓါတ္မွန္ဖတ္ေသာဌာနသို.ပို.၍ ဓါတ္မွန္ဖတ္ခိုင္းရမည္ ။ထိုအတြက္ ဓါတ္မွန္ဖတ္ခကုန္က်ေငြအနည္းငယ္ကိုေတာင္းရာ မိခင္ၾကီးက ေပးလိုက္သည္ ။က်ြန္ေတာ္.ကိုေသြးစစ္ရန္ေသြးလည္းေဖာက္ယူထားလိုက္ျပီးဓါတ္ခြဲခန္းသို.ပို.လိုက္သည္ ။ ထို.ေနာက္က်ြန္ေတာ္တို.အိမ္ျပန္လာခဲ.ၾက၏ ။ ခ်ိန္းေသာရက္တြင္က်ြန္ေတာ္တို.သည္ေက်ာင္းသားေဆးခန္းသို.ျပန္သြား၏ ။ ဆရာ၀န္ေဒါ ္သန္းေဌးသည္ ဓါတ္မွန္အေျဖစာရြက္ကိုလက္ထဲတြင္ကိုင္ထားသည္ ။ ဓါတ္မွန္ဖတ္ေသာအေျဖစာရြက္ကေလးတြင္  ကုန္းေဘာင္ဓါတ္မွန္ ၊ေရြွဘံုသာလမ္း၊ရန္ကုန္ျမိဳ. ဟုေရးထားတာကိုယခုထက္တိုင္မွတ္မိ၏ ။ထို.ေၾကာင္.ယခုအခါက်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ ရန္ကုန္ ေရြွဘံုသာလမ္းထဲသို.ျဖတ္သြားရင္း ကုန္းေဘာင္ေဆးခန္း ဆိုတာေတြ.တိုင္းငယ္ဘ၀ကိုသတိရမိပါသည္ ။ ေဒါက္တာေဒါ ္သန္းေဌးကဤသို.ေျပာ၏ ။

“ ကေလးက ကံေကာင္းတယ္ ေဆးရံုလာျပတာ နည္းနည္းေနာက္က်သြားရင္ကုလို.မရေတာ.ဘူး ၊ ကုလို.ရခဲ.ရင္ေတာင္ တစ္သက္လံုးေျခတစ္ဖက္နိမ္.ျပီး ဒုကၡတိတဘ၀ေရာက္သြားလိမ္.မယ္ “

“ ဘာေရာဂါလဲ ေဒါက္တာ “ ဟုက်ြန္ေတာ္. အေမကေမးသည္ ။ ကေလးဘ၀မွတ္ဥာဏ္တြင္ေမ.မရမည္.ေဒါက္တာေဒါ ္သန္းေဌး၏အေျဖကထြက္လာသည္ ။

“ ေတာ္ေတာ္ရွားရွားပါးပါးေရာဂါပဲ ၊ Bone T.B လို.ေခါ ္တယ္ ။ အရိုးတီဘီေပါ. ။ တင္ပဆံုအရိုးထဲကိုတီဘီပိုး၀င္သြားတာ ။ အဆုတ္မွာျဖစ္တဲ.တီဘီမဟုတ္ဘူး ၊ အဆုတ္ကေကာင္းတယ္ ။ ေတာ္ေတာ္ေတာ.စိတ္ရွည္ရွည္ကုရလိမ္.မယ္ ။ လူနဲ.ေရာဂါကမမ်ွဘူူး ။ ေန.တိုင္းေဆးထိုးရမယ္ ။ ေျခာက္လေလာက္ေန.တိုင္းေဆးထိုးရမယ္ ။ ေျခာက္လျပည္.ရင္ တစ္ပါတ္နွစ္ရက္ ေဆးထိုးျပီး တစ္နွစ္ ၊တစ္နွစ္ခြဲေလာက္ ထပ္ကုရမယ္ ။ ေသာက္ေဆးလဲ ေန.တိုင္းေသာက္ရမယ္ ။ မွန္မွန္လာနိုင္ပါ.မလား နွစ္နဲ.ခ်ီျပီးကုရမွာ  “ 

အေမသည္မိနစ္အနည္းငယ္ ဘာမွျပန္မေျပာနိုင္ပဲ တိတ္ဆိတ္ေငးငိုင္ေန၏ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္.အတြက္ယူရမည္.တာ၀န္မွာအင္မတန္ၾကီးမားလွသည္ ။ ထိုအခ်ိန္ကအေမသည္ ေခါက္ဆြဲဆိုင္ကိုရပ္နားထားကာစျဖစ္ရာ ျပည္ျမိဳ.ေစ်းၾကီးတြင္ အေမသည္ ကုန္စိမ္းေရာင္းျပီး မိသားစု၀မ္းေရးကိုေျဖရွင္းေနရပါသည္ ။ ထိုသို.တစ္ဖက္မွစီးပြားရွာေနရင္းက်ြန္ေတာ္.ကိုေန.စဥ္ေဆးခန္းသို. လိုက္ပို.ရမည္.တာ၀န္ကမေသးလွမွန္းအေမသည္ ခ်ိန္ဆေနပံုရသည္ ။ မိသားစုထဲတြင္အားလံုးမွာ ေက်ာင္းသားေက်ာင္းသူမ်ားျဖစ္သည္ ။ အေဖသည္သတင္းေထာက္တစ္ေယာက္အျဖစ္အျမဲတန္းအျပင္သြားသတင္းလိုက္ေနသည္ျဖစ္ရာက်ြန္ေတာ္.ကိုေန.စဥ္ရက္ဆက္ အခ်ိန္မွန္မွန္ေဆးခန္းပို.ဖို.အေရးမွာ မျဖစ္နိုင္ဖို.မ်ားေနေလသည္ ။

“ ကေလးက ေက်ာင္းဆက္တက္လို.မျဖစ္ေလာက္ဘူးထင္တယ္ ေဒါက္တာ “ 
“ ဟုတ္တယ္ ဒီနွစ္တစ္နွစ္ ေက်ာင္းထြက္ရမယ္ “ 
“ က်ြန္မတစ္ခုေလာက္ေတာင္းဆိုပါရေစေဒါက္တာရယ္ ၊ ေတာင္းပန္တာဆိုရင္ပိုျပီးမွန္ပါလိမ္.မယ္ “
“ ဟုတ္ကဲ.ေျပာပါ “ 
“ က်ြန္မတို.ကစီးပြားေရးအဆင္မေျပပါဘူး ၊ ေဆးခန္းကအခမဲ.ေဆးကုေပးတယ္ဆိုေပမယ္. ေန.တိုင္းေဆးခန္းကိုလာဖို.စားရိတ္ကရွိပါေသးတယ္ ။ ဆိုကၠားခလဲ ေန.တိုင္းဆိုေတာ. မတတ္နိုင္ပါဘူး ၊ အဲဒိေတာ. သားကိုက်ြန္မ စက္ဘီးနဲ.ေခါ ္လာခဲ.ပါ.မယ္ ။ စက္ဘီးကလဲ ဆိုင္ကငွားစီးရမွာပါ ။ တစ္နာရီတစ္က်ပ္ဆိုေတာ. ေန.တိုင္းကုန္က်စားရိတ္မတတ္နိုင္လို. ပိုက္ဆံသက္သာေအာင္ တစ္ေန.ကိုနာရီ၀က္ ငါးမူး ဖိုးငွားျပီးလာခဲ.ပါမယ္ ။ အသြားအျပန္နာရီ၀က္နဲ. အခ်ိန္မီေအာင္ ေဒါက္တာတို.ေဆးခန္းမွာအဆင္အေျပဆံုးအခ်ိန္ကိုေျပာပါ က်ြန္မအဲဒိအခ်ိန္ေရာက္ေအာင္ေန.တိုင္းလာပါ.မယ္ ၊ အဲဒါတစ္ခုေတာ.က်ြန္မကိုကူညီပါ “ 

ေဒါက္တာေဒါ ္သန္းေဌးသည္က်ြန္ေတာ္တို.ကိုသနားသြားသည္ထင္ပါသည္ ။ 
“ ရပါတယ္ ဒီလိုလုပ္ပါ ေဆးခန္းပိတ္ကာနီး ေန.လည္ သံုးနာရီ ဆိုရင္ လူေတာ္ေတာ္ရွင္းပါတယ္ အဲဒိအခ်ိန္လာနိုင္ရင္က်ြန္မတို. အျမန္ဆံုးေဆးထိုးေပးပါမယ္ ၊အဆင္ေျပေအာင္လုပ္ေပးပါ.မယ္ ၊ မွန္မွန္သာလာခဲ.ပါ ၊ဒီေဆးကပ်က္လို.မရဘူး ၊ မွန္မွန္ထိုးရမယ္ “ 

ယေန.ေခတ္ကာလတြင္ ပိုက္ဆံမေပးနိုင္ေသာလူနာကို ေဆးရံု၀န္ထမ္းမ်ားကမေျခမငံဆက္ဆံေျပာဆိုေသာေၾကာင္. လူနာမွာရွက္ကာ မိမိကိုယ္ကိုယ္သတ္ေသသြားေသာသတင္းကိုၾကားရေသာအခါ က်ြန္ေတာ္ငယ္ငယ္ကၾကံုေတြ.ခဲ.ရေသာျပည္ျမိဳ.ေက်ာင္းသားသူငယ္ က်န္းမာေရးဌာနမွ ဆရာ၀န္ ၊သူနာျပဳ ၊ကြန္ေပါင္းဒါး စေသာေဆး၀န္ထမ္းမ်ား၏ သေဘာထားျပည္.၀မွုကိုအံ.ၾသရေလသည္ ။ 

             ထိုေန.မွစကာက်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ ေနစဥ္ေန.တိုင္း မိခင္ၾကီးနင္းေသာစက္ဘီးေနာက္ခံုမွထိုင္လိုက္ကာ စထရက္တိုမိုင္ဇင္ဟုေခါ ္ေသာေဆးကိုမွန္မွန္အထ္ိုးခံရေလသည္ ။ ေန.စဥ္ရက္ဆက္ေဆးထိုးခံရသျဖင္. က်ြန္ေတာ္.တင္ပါးမွာ အပ္ရာတြင္နွင္.ပရပြျဖစ္ေနေလသည္ ။ ေဆးထိုးအပ္ကိုထိုစဥ္မွက်ြန္ေတာ္ေၾကာက္သြားသည္မွာ ယခုထက္တိုင္ ေနမေကာင္းလ်င္ ေဆးခန္းသို.မသြားခ်င္ ၊ေဆးထိုးအပ္ကို မၾကည္.ခ်င္ မျမင္ခ်င္ မံစားနိုင္ေလာက္ေအာင္ျဖစ္သြားေလသည္ ။ ေဆးထိုးခံရသည္ထက္နာက်င္ခံစားရေသာေ၀ဒနာမွာအေမ.ေနာက္မွလိုက္၍ စက္ဘီးစီးရျခင္းျဖစ္သည္ ။ အေမသည္ က်ြန္ေတာ္နာက်င္မွုေ၀ဒနာမခံစားရေစရန္ ကယ္ရီယာတြင္ ေခါင္းအံုးပါးပါးခု၍ က်ြန္ေတာ္.ကိုတင္ေဆာင္လာပါသည္ ။သို.ေသာ္ ေ၀ဒနာျပင္းထန္ေနဆဲကာလျဖစ္သျဖင္. စက္ဘီးသည္ ခ်ိဳင္.ခြက္ကေလးတစ္ခုထဲသို.နည္းနည္းက်လိုက္သည္နွင္. နာက်င္လြန္းသျဖင္. အမေလး ၊အဘေလးတကာ လိုက္ပါလာရျခင္းျဖစ္သည္ ။ အေမကလည္းတတ္နိုင္သမ်ွစက္ဘီးကိုေျဖးေျဖးနင္းကာက်ြန္ေတာ္သိပ္ျပီးမနာက်င္ေအာင္ (တစ္ဖက္ကလည္းစက္ဘီးငွားခ နာရီ၀က္အတြင္း၀င္ေအာင္ )ေန.စဥ္ စိတ္မပ်က္လက္မပ်က္ က်ြန္ေတာ္.ကို ေဆးခန္းသို. နွစ္ေပါက္ေအာင္ပို.ေဆာင္ေပးခဲ.ေလသည္ ။

ကက္ဆက္ေခြဇာတ္လမ္းမ်ားနွင္.က်ြန္ေတာ္

ထိုေန.မွစကာ က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္လူမမာၾကီးလံုးလံုးျဖစ္သြားေပ၏ ။ မည္မ်ွေတာင္ဆိုးသလဲဟူမူ က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ပက္လက္လွန္လဲေလ်ာင္းေနရာမွ ညာဘက္သို.ျဖစ္ေစ ဘယ္ဘက္သို.ျဖစ္ေစကိုယ္.ဘာသာ တစ္ဖက္ဖက္သို.မေစာင္းနိုင္ေပ ။ တင္ပါးဆံုးရိုးထဲမွနာက်င္လွေသာေၾကာင္.ျဖစ္သည္ ။ လူအကူအတြဲပါမွ က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ တစ္ဖက္သို.ေစာင္းနိုင္၏ ။ အကူအတြဲဆိုေသာ္လည္းလူတိုင္းတြဲ၍ ထူ၍ရသည္မဟုတ္ ၊ က်ြန္ေတာ္. ေရာဂါအထာကိုသိသူက်ြန္ေတာ္.မိခင္ၾကီးတစ္ေယာက္သာ က်ြန္ေတာ္.ကိုထူ၍ရပါသည္ ။ ထိုအေျခအေနမ်ိဳးျဖင္.စက္ဘီးတစ္စီး၏ေနာက္မွ ထိုင္လိုက္ရေသာက်ြန္ေတာ္.ဒုကၡမွာ အလြန္ၾကီးမားပါသည္ ။ သို.ေသာ္ က်ြန္ေတာ္နွင္.အေမသည္ ဘာေတြပဲၾကံဳလာသည္ျဖစ္ေစ ၊မိုးရြာရြာေနပူပူ ေန.စဥ္မွန္မွန္ေဆးခန္းသို.သြားကာ ေဆးထိုးခဲ.ပါသည္ ။ ညစဥ္လည္း တီဘီေဆးမ်ားေသာက္ရေသးသည္မွာ ပဲေလွာ္စားသလိုမ်ားျပားလွပါသည္ ။ထိုေခတ္ထိုအခ်ိန္ ၁၉၈၀ ခန္.က ေဆးပညာသည္သိပ္ျပီးမထြန္းကားေသးသည္ျဖစ္ရာယခုေခတ္လို ေဆးအားလံုးကိုတစ္မ်ိဳးတည္းေပါင္းထားေသာ DOTS တို.ဘာတို.လိုအစြမ္းထက္ ေဆးမ်ားလည္းမေပါ ္ေသးပါ ။ စထရက္တိုမိုင္ဇင္ဆိုေသာအလြန္ျပင္းထန္သည္.ထိုးေဆးကိုပင္ ေန.စဥ္ထိုးရပါသည္ ။ ေဆးခဲျဖဴျဖဴ ၆ ခဲခန္.ကိုညစဥ္ေသာက္ရပါသည္ ။ ဆရာသိန္းေဖျမင္.လည္း က်ြန္ေတာ္.လိုပင္ အရိုးတီဘီေရာဂါျဖစ္ပြားဖူူးရာ သူတို.ေခတ္က က်ြန္ေတာ္.ထက္ဆိုးပံုရသည္ ။ခါးရိုးကိုပလာစတာကိုင္ ေက်ာက္ပါတ္တီးစီးျပီးေျခာက္လခန္.ေနထိုင္ရေသာ ဒုကၡကိုေတာ.က်ြန္ေတာ္မခံခဲ.ရပါ ။ အသက္ငယ္တာေရာပါမည္ထင္သည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္ျဖစ္ေသာေရာဂါမွာ အရိုးကို တီဘီပိုး လွိုက္စားခံရသည္.ေရာဂါဆန္းျဖစ္ျပီး အျခားတီဘီေရာဂါေ၀ဒနာရွင္မ်ားကဲ.သို.ေခ်ာင္းဆိုးျခင္း ၊ အဆုတ္မေကာင္းျခင္းအလ်ဥ္းမရွိပါ ။ အဆုပ္မွာအလြန္ေကာင္းပါသည္ ။ ေခ်ာင္းလည္းမဆိုးပါ ။ တင္ပါးရိုးထဲမွနာသည္မွတပါးအျခား ေရာဂါလကၡဏာမရွိပါ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ေန.စဥ္ပင္အိပ္ေနရသည္ကမ်ားပါသည္ ။ တစ္ခါတစ္ရံတြင္ ေခါင္းအံုးမ်ား ခုကာ ပက္လက္ကုလားထိုင္တြင္ ထိုင္ရပါသည္ ။ ေက်ာင္းလဲမေနရေတာ.ပဲ တစ္နွစ္ေဆးခြင္.တင္ကာေက်ာင္းထြက္လိုက္ရပါသည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္.စိတ္ကိုအထိခိုက္ဆံုးေသာအခ်ိန္မွာ နံနက္(၉) နာရီခန္. အျဖူအစိမ္း၀တ္ေက်ာင္းသားေက်ာင္းသူမ်ား အိမ္ေရွ.မွျဖတ္သြားခ်ိန္နွင္. ညေနေက်ာင္းဆင္း၍ ျပန္လာၾကခ်ိန္ျဖစ္သည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္အျဖဴအစိမ္းမ်ားကိုျမင္သည္နွင္. ကိုယ္ေက်ာင္းမတက္နိုင္ေသာအျဖစ္ကို အလိုလို၀မ္းနည္းလာမိသည္ ။ ရေသ.စိတ္ေျဖအျဖစ္ က်ြန္ေတာ္နွင္.ခုနစ္တန္းအတူတက္ေနေသာ အိမ္နီးနားခ်င္းျဖစ္သူ ကိုေဇာ္ဆိုသည္. ေက်ာင္းသားကို အိမ္ေရွ.မွေစာင္.ေမ်ွာ္ၾကည္.ေနကာသူလာသည္နွင္. ေဇာ္ေဇာ္ေရလာပါဦးကြ ၊ဒီေန.ဘာသင္သလဲ ဟု ေမးကာ သူ.စာအုပ္မ်ားကိုလွန္ေလွာၾကည္.ရွဳမိပါသည္ ။သူ.စာအုပ္မ်ားထဲမွ ေက်ာင္းစာမ်ားအားလံုးသည္ က်ြန္ေတာ္.အတြက္ ဖတ္ၾကည္.တာနွင္.အားလံုးနားလည္ေနသည္ ။ အေထြအထူးရွင္းျပစရာပင္မလိုေပ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္ေက်ာင္းစာအုပ္မ်ားကိုထိုသို.ၾကည္.ေနသည္ကို အေမသည္စိတ္ေကာင္းပံုမရ ။ပါးစပ္မွေတာ.ဖြင္.ဟ၍မတားျမစ္ ။ၾကာေတာ.က်ြန္ေတာ္လည္းလက္ေလ်ွာ.လိုက္ကာ ကိုေဇာ္ကိုလည္းေခါ ္၍ စာအုပ္မ်ားကိုလွန္ေလွာမၾကည္.ေတာ.ျပီ ။ ေရွ.နွစ္ခါငါေနေကာင္းလာမွ ပဲေက်ာင္းျပန္တက္ေတာ.မည္ဟုအားခဲထားလိုက္ပါသည္ ။ ထိုအခါတစ္ေနကုန္ပ်င္းရိလွေသာေၾကာင္. ကိုယ္. ေဖ်ာ္ေျဖေရးကိုကိုယ္ရွာရသည္ ။ ထိုစဥ္က ကက္ဆက္ေခြဇာတ္လမ္းမ်ားေခတ္စားသည္ ။စီေျခာက္ဆယ္ (တစ္နာရီ ခန္.) စာ ကက္ဆက္တိပ္ေခြမ်ားအလြန္ေခတ္စားေနခ်ိန္ျဖစ္ျပီး ထိုစဥ္က ကက္ဆက္ေခြဇာတ္လမ္းေလာကတြင္ ဘီအီးဒီေအာင္သိုက္ ၊ ေကာလိပ္ဂ်င္ေန၀င္း ၊ဂီတစာဆိုေမာင္ေၾကးမံု ၊ ႏြဲ.ႏြဲ.မူ ၊ ေခတၱရာတမာခ်ိဳ ၊ ဓနုျဖဴၾကည္ၾကည္သိန္းတို.ေခတ္စားေနသည္ ။ ျပသနာကက်ြန္ေတာ္တို.အိမ္တြင္ကက္ဆက္မရွိ ။ ထိုစဥ္ကကက္ဆက္တစ္လံုးသည္ တန္ဘိုးရွိ၍ရွားပါးပစၥည္းျဖစ္သည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္တို. အိမ္မွ မ်က္နွာခ်င္းဆိုင္ကားလမ္းတစ္ဖက္တြင္ မၾကည္ေအာင္ထမင္းဆိုင္ဆိုေသာ နာမည္ေက်ာ္ထမင္းဆိုင္တစ္ဆိုင္ရွိသည္ ။ ထိုဆိုင္သည္ အလြန္လက္ရာေကာင္းေသာေၾကာင္. စားသံုးသူ ကားသမားမ်ားနွင္.မျပတ္စည္ကားလ်က္ရွိသည္ ။က်ြန္ေတာ္.အေဖသည္မၾကည္ေအာင္ထမင္းဆိုင္မွ အမဲနွပ္ကိုအလြန္ၾကိဳက္၍ မၾကာခန၀ယ္ယူစားသံုးေလ.ရွိသည္ ။ ထိုမၾကည္ေအာင္ထမင္္းဆိုင္သည္ စားသံုးသူမ်ားကို ေဖ်ာ္ေျဖသည္.အေနနွင္. ကက္ဆက္ေခြဇာတ္လမ္းမ်ားကို က်ယ္ေလာင္စြာဖြင္.ေလ.ရွိသည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္မွတ္မိေနေသာဇာတ္လမ္းမ်ားမွာ ဗိုလ္ေအာင္ဒင္ ၊ဗိုလ္ေအာင္ဒင္ျပန္လာျပီ ၊သားဗိုလ္ေအာင္ဒင္ ၊ မင္းအသက္ငါ.ေပးဆရာၾကီးျမတ္ခိုင္ ၊ မီးေတာက္ရဲ.လား ၊ေက်ာက္စိမ္းတံုးၾကီးျခာျခာလည္ စသည္ျဖင္.ျဖစ္သည္ ။ ကက္ဆက္ေခြေလာကတြင္ေကာလိပ္ဂ်င္ေန၀င္းနွင္. ဓနုျဖဴၾကည္ၾကည္သိန္းသည္ အေအာင္ျမင္ဆံုးျဖစ္သည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ေန.လည္ဘက္ထမင္းစားျပီးသည္နွင္. အေမ.ကို မၾကည္ေအာင္ထမင္းဆိုင္သို.လိုက္ပို.ပါရန္ေတာင္းဆိုရ၏ ။ ထိုအခါအေမသည္ မၾကည္ေအာင္ထမင္းဆိုင္နွင္. မနီးမေ၀းေနရာတြင္ က်ြန္ေတာ္.အတြက္ပက္လက္ကုလားထိုင္ကိုသြား၍ ခင္းရ၏ ။ ခါးမနာေစရန္ေခါင္းအံုးေတြဘာေတြ အက်အနခင္းရ၏ ။ ေနရာထိုင္ခင္းအဆင္သင္.ျဖစ္လ်င္ အေမသည္က်ြန္ေတာ္.ကိုေပြ.ခ်ီကာ လမ္းျဖတ္ကူးျပီး ကုလားထိုင္ေပါ ္တြင္က်က်နနခ်ထားခဲ.ျပီး မၾကည္ေအာင္ထံအပ္နွံကာျပန္သြား၏ ။ ထိုအခ်ိန္မွစကာ ဆိုင္မသိမ္းမခ်င္း က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ ကက္ဆက္ေခြျပဇာတ္မ်ားကိုတစ္ေခြျပီးတစ္ေခြနားေသာတဆင္ေတာ.သည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္ျပန္ခ်င္လ်င္မၾကည္ေအာင္ဆိုင္မွတစ္ေယာက္ေယာက္ကိုေျပာလိုက္လ်င္ အေမ.ကိုသြားအေၾကာင္းၾကားေပးကာအေမျပန္လာေခါ ္ပါသည္ ။ဤသို.နားေထာင္သည္မွာ ေန.စဥ္နီးပါးတစ္နွစ္ခန္.ၾကာပါသည္ ။ထို.ေၾကာင္.က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ ငယ္စဥ္ကပင္ျပဇာတ္ သေဘာ ၊ခန္းကူးခန္းေျပာင္း ဇာတ္ညြွန္းသေဘာ ၊ Tempo ေခါ ္ဇာတ္ရွိန္ျမွင္.သည္.သေဘာ ၊ ဒိုင္ယာေလာ. (ေခါ ္) အခ်ီအခ်စကားေျပာၾကသည္.သေဘာမ်ားကို အေပ်ာ္သေဘာနားေထာင္ရင္းပညာရေန၏ ။ ေနာင္အခါစာေရးေသာအခါ အေတာ္အသံုး၀င္တာေတြ.ရေလသည္ ။ 

      ဤသို.ျဖင္.ေျခာက္လၾကာသြားေသာအခါ က်ြန္ေတာ္.အေျခအေနသည္ အနည္းငယ္တိုးတက္လာ၏ ။ ဟိုနားသည္နား လမ္းေလ်ွာက္နိုင္လာသည္ ။ တင္ပါးဆံုအရိုးထဲမွလည္းသိပ္မနာေတာ. ။သို.ေသာ္ ေရာဂါမွာအရွင္းမေပ်ာက္ေသးသျဖင္. တစ္ပါတ္လ်င္ နွစ္ရက္နွုန္းျဖင္.ေဆးဆက္ထိုးရသည္ ။ ေသာက္ေဆးကေတာ.ေန.တိုင္းေသာက္ရသည္ ။ က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ ငယ္ငယ္ရြယ္ရြယ္ အသက္ (၁၂) နွစ္အရြယ္ တြင္ ေသေလာက္ေသာေရာဂါၾကီးတစ္ခုနွင္.ရင္ဆိုင္လိုက္ရေသာအခါ ေရာဂါဒဏ္ ၊ အလြန္ျပင္းထန္ေသာစထရက္တိုမိုင္ဇင္ထိုးေဆးမ်ားဒဏ္ေၾကာင္. ကိုယ္ခႏၥာသည္ၾကီးထြားမွုတုန္.ေနွးသြား၏ ။ ငယ္စဥ္ကျပည္.ျပည္.၀၀ရွိခဲ.ေသာကိုယ္ခႏၥာသည္ ထိုစဥ္မွစကာ ၾကံဳလွီ ေသးေကြးသြား၏ ။ ထိုသို.ခႏၥာကိုယ္ဥပဓိရုပ္ေျပာင္းလဲသြားသည္မွာ ယခုထက္တိုင္ျဖစ္သည္ ။ထို.ေၾကာင္.က်ြန္ုပ္ငယ္စဥ္ကဓါတ္ပံုမ်ားကိုၾကည္.လ်င္ အသက္ (၁၂ ) နွစ္အထိသည္ လူတစ္ေယာက္ ၊ အသက္ (၁၂) နွစ္မွစကာယခုအထိသည္အျခား လူတစ္ေယာက္၏ပံုဟု ဆိုရမတတ္ေျပာင္းလဲသြားပါသည္ ။ မတူညီေသာလူနွစ္ေယာက္ကိုၾကည္.ျမင္ရသလိုျဖစ္ေနေပသည္ ။ 
      တျဖည္းျဖည္းနွင္.က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္က်န္းမာေရးအေျခအေနျပန္ေကာင္းလာပါသည္ ။ေနာက္တစ္နွစ္တြင္ေက်ာင္းျပန္တက္နိုင္သည္ ။ ထိုစဥ္ကာလမ်ားက က်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ လူေတာတိုးရမွာေၾကာက္ေနသည္ ။ အလိုလိုအားငယ္ေနတတ္သည္ ။ဆယ္တန္းမေအာင္ခင္အထိ  စိတ္ဓာတ္က်သလိုလို သိမ္ငယ္သလိုလို ျဖစ္ေနသည္ ။ ကိုယ္.ကိုယ္ကိုသတ္ေသခ်င္ေသာစိတ္ပင္တစ္ခါတစ္ရံျဖစ္မိေလသည္ ။ သို.ေသာ္ က်ြန္ေတာ္.မိခင္ကက်ြန္ေတာ္.ကို အားေပးခဲ.၏ ။ စာေပကက်ြန္ေတာ္.ဘ၀ကိုကယ္တင္ခဲ.သည္ ။ ဆရာၾကီးပီမိုးနင္းေရးသားေသာစာအုပ္တစ္အုပ္ထဲမွ စာေၾကာင္းေလးတစ္ေၾကာင္းက က်ြန္ေတာ္.ဘ၀ကိုေျပာင္းလဲသြားေစခဲ.သည္ ။ ထိုစာသားမွာေအာက္ပါအတိုင္းရွင္းရွင္းေလးေရးထားသည္ ။
“ ဒုကၡငယ္ကေလးမ်ားကိုခံစားျခင္းျဖင္. ဒုကၡၾကီးမ်ားမွ လြတ္ကင္းနိုင္ေလသည္ ။ ဒုကၡငယ္ကေလးမ်ားမွာစိတ္အလိုကိုလြန္စြာမလိုက္ျခင္းျဖစ္သည္ “ 
ထို.ေနာက္ပိုင္းမွစကာက်ြန္ေတာ္သည္ ေတာ္ရံုတန္ရံုဒုကၡမ်ားကိုခံနိုင္ရည္ရွိလာသည္ ။ ဘ၀ရည္မွန္းခ်က္ပန္းတိုင္ကိုျမင္.ျမင္.ထားသည္ ။ သူတကာထက္ပို၍ၾကိဳးစားအားထုတ္သည္ ။ ဆႏၵနွင္. ၀ီရိယျပင္းထန္၍ ရည္မွန္းခ်က္ပန္းတိုင္ရွိေသာလူတစ္ေယာက္အတြက္ ၾကီးမားေသာ အခက္အခဲမ်ားၾကံဳလာရသည္.တိုင္ ၾကံ.ၾကံ.ခံ၍ေက်ာ္လြွားေရွ.ဆက္နိုင္စျမဲပင္ျဖစ္သည္ ဟုက်ြန္ေတာ္ယံုၾကည္ပါသည္ ။

သရ၀ဏ္(ျပည္) 
Eternal Light မဂၢဇင္း ၂၀၁၆ ေဖေဖာ္၀ါရီ

Monday, December 11, 2017

The future is quantum: Microsoft releases free preview of Quantum Development Kit Dec 11, 2017    |   Allison Linn

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The future is quantum: Microsoft releases free preview of Quantum Development Kit

Dec 11, 2017   |   Allison Linn

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From left, Charles Marcus, Krysta Svore, Leo Kouwenhoven and Michael Freedman are leading Microsoft’s quantum computing efforts. Photo by Brian Smale.

So you want to learn how to program a quantum computer. Now, there’s a toolkit for that.

Microsoft is releasing a free preview version of its Quantum Development Kit, which includes the Q# programming language, a quantum computing simulator and other resources for people who want to start writing applications for a quantum computer. The Q# programming language was built from the ground up specifically for quantum computing.

The Quantum Development Kit, which Microsoft first announced at its Ignite conference in September, is designed for developers who are eager to learn how to program on quantum computers whether or not they are experts in the field of quantum physics.

It’s deeply integrated into Visual Studio, Microsoft’s suite of developer tools, so aspects of it will be familiar to people who are already developing applications in other programming languages. And it’s designed to work with a local quantum simulator, also released as part of the kit, that can simulate around 30 logical qubits of quantum computing power using a typical laptop computer. That will allow developers to debug quantum code and test programs on small instances right on their own computers.

For larger-scale quantum challenges, Microsoft also is offering an Azure-based simulator that can simulate more than 40 logical qubits of computing power.

Along with the kit, Microsoft also is making a comprehensive suite of documentation, libraries and sample programs available. That will give people the background they need to start playing around with aspects of computing that are unique to quantum systems, such as quantum teleportation.

That’s a method of securely sharing information across quantum computing bits, or qubits, that are connected by a quantum state called entanglement.

“The hope is that you play with something like teleportation and you get intrigued,” said Krysta Svore, a principal researcher at Microsoft who has led the development of the quantum software and simulator.

The kit will let people create applications that can run right now on the quantum simulator, and those same apps also will eventually work on a topological quantum computer, which Microsoft is in the process of developing for general purpose quantum computing.

“The beauty of it is that this code won’t need to change when we plug it into the quantum hardware,” Svore said.

From artificial intelligence to climate change

Experts believe quantum computers could allow scientists to address some of the world’s toughest challenges, such as world hunger or the dangerous effects of climate change. That’s partly because quantum computers will be able to do calculations in hours or even minutes that would take the lifetime of the universe for even the most advanced classical computers in use today.

Quantum computers also are expected to help spur major advances in fields such as artificial intelligence.

For example, many of the current breakthroughs in AI are based in part on machine learning, in which a system is given a set of data and learns from that data to recognize things like words, sounds or objects.

With a quantum computing simulator, Svore said computer scientists are already seeing how they could create quantum algorithms for that type of AI research. In early testing on the simulator, they are seeing how these quantum algorithms could more quickly find more nuanced patterns in data, which could spur major advances in fields such as speech, vision or language recognition.

“It seems like there’s a huge amount of potential there, and we’re just scratching the surface,” Svore said.

Topological quantum computing

The Quantum Development Kit is part of Microsoft’s plan to build a robust, full-fledged quantum computing system, which includes everything from the quantum computing hardware to the full software stack. The company’s researchers also are working on projects focused on cryptography and security in a quantum computing world.

Microsoft’s approach is centered on the development of a topological qubit, a more robust type of qubit that Microsoft’s experts believe will provide a better basis for practical, scalable quantum computing.

One big challenge about quantum computing is that qubits are extremely finicky. They need to be stored at very low temperatures, for example, or they might be disturbed and destroyed.

Because they are so finicky, most approaches to building qubits require massive amounts of error correction, or techniques to ensure information is delivered reliably. With a topological qubit, error correction is built right into the physics of the qubit itself. That makes it easier to scale up and deliver reliable results, and to do computations that are orders of magnitude larger than is possible on a classical computer, with fewer qubits than other quantum systems.

It goes without saying that quantum physics is extremely complex, and even some of thesmartest people in the world confess that quantum computing is hard for them to understand.

Todd Holmdahl, the corporate vice president in charge of Microsoft’s quantum effort, noted that it’s up to Microsoft to figure out the quantum physics – and then to deliver tools like the Quantum Development Kit that people without a quantum physics degree can use. The hope is that these tools will make the power of quantum computing accessible to many more people.

“What you’re going to see as a developer is the opportunity to tie into tools that you already know well, services you already know well,” Holmdahl said. “There will be a twist with quantum computing, but it’s our job to make it as easy as possible for the developers who know and love us to be able to use these new tools that could potentially do some things exponentially faster – which means going from a billion years on a classical computer to a couple hours on a quantum computer.”

Related:

Try out the Quantum Development KitLearn more: Announcing the Microsoft Quantum Development KitWith new Microsoft breakthroughs, general purpose quantum computing moves closer to realityMicrosoft doubles down on quantum computing betWatch a step-by-step demo of the Quantum Development Kit

Allison Linn is a senior writer at Microsoft.Follow her on Twitter.



Tags: Quantum, Quantum computing

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Learning computer words/ my darling . 24 pages. 11 dec. 2017 mon.

Learning computer words/ my darling . 24 pages.
 11 dec. 2017 mon.


direct memory access29sep04

n. Memory access that does not involve the microprocessor and is frequently used for data transfer directly between memory and an intelligent peripheral device, such as a disk drive. Acronym: DMA.
n. An object-oriented version of the C programming language, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in the early 1980s at Bell Laboratories and adopted by a number of vendors, including Apple Computer and Sun Microsystems, Inc. See also C, Objective-C, object-oriented programming.
ISV’s independent software vendors/8dec04

abstract data type/ 2dec04

n. In programming, a data set defined by the programmer in terms of the information it can contain and the operations that can be performed with it. An abstract data type is more generalized than a data type constrained by the properties of the objects it contains-for example, the data type "pet" is more generalized than the data types "pet dog," "pet bird," and "pet fish." The standard example used in illustrating an abstract data type is the stack", a small portion of memory used to store information, generally on a temporary basis. As an abstract data type, the stack is simply a structure onto which values can be pushed (added) and from which they can be popped (removed). The type of value, such as integer, is irrelevant to the definition.
The way in which the program performs operations on abstract data types is encapsulated, or hidden, from the rest of the program. Encapsulation enables the programmer to change the definition of the data type or its operations without introducing errors to the existing code that uses the abstract data type. Abstract data types represent an intermediate step between traditional programming and object-oriented programming. See also data type, object-oriented programming.

encapsulation

n. In object-oriented programming, the packaging of attributes (properties) and functionality (methods or behaviors) to create an object that is essentially a black box—one whose internal structure remains private and whose services can be accessed by other objects only through messages passed via a clearly defined interface (the programming equivalent of a mailbox or telephone line). Encapsulation ensures that the object providing service can prevent other objects from manipulating its data or procedures directly, and it enables the object requesting service to ignore the details of how that service is provided. See also information hiding.

fuzzy logic

n. A form of logic used in some expert systems and other artificial-intelligence applications in which variables can have degrees of truthfulness or falsehood represented by a range of values between 1 (true) and 0 (false). With fuzzy logic, the outcome of an operation can be expressed as a probability rather than as a certainty. For example, an outcome might be probably true, possibly true, possibly false, or probably false. See also expert system.

expert system/ 2dec04

n. An application program that makes decisions or solves problems in a particular field, such as finance or medicine, by using knowledge and analytical rules defined by experts in the field. It uses two components, a knowledge base and an inference engine, to form conclusions. Additional tools include user interfaces and explanation facilities, which enable the system to justify or explain its conclusions as well as allowing developers to run checks on the operating system. See also artificial intelligence, inference engine, intelligent database,   encapsulation

n. In object-oriented programming, the packaging of attributes (properties) and functionality (methods or behaviors) to create an object that is essentially a black box—one whose internal structure remains private and whose services can be accessed by other objects only through messages passed via a clearly defined interface (the programming equivalent of a mailbox or telephone line). Encapsulation ensures that the object providing service can prevent other objects from manipulating its data or procedures directly, and it enables the object requesting service to ignore the details of how that service is provided. See also information hiding.

black box

n. A unit of hardware or software whose internal structure is unknown but whose function is documented. The internal mechanics of the function do not matter to a designer who uses a black box to obtain that function. For example, a memory chip can be viewed as a black box. Many people use memory chips and design them into computers, but generally only memory chip designers need to understand their internal operation.

encapsulate

vb. 1. To treat a collection of structured information as a whole without affecting or taking notice of its internal structure. In communications, a message or packet constructed according to one protocol, such as a TCP/IP packet, may be taken with its formatting data as an undifferentiated stream of bits that is then broken up and packaged according to a lower-level protocol (for example, as ATM packets) to be sent over a particular network; at the destination, the lower-level packets are assembled, re-creating the message as formatted for the encapsulated protocol. See also ATM (definition 1). 2. In object-oriented programming, to keep the implementation details of a class a separate file whose contents do not need to be known by a programmer using that class. See also object-oriented programming, TCP/IP.

information hiding

n. A design practice in which implementation details for both data structures and algorithms within a module or subroutine are hidden from routines using that module or subroutine, so as to ensure that those routines do not depend on some particular detail of the implementation. In theory, information hiding allows the module or subroutine to be changed without breaking the routines that use it. See also break, module, routine, subroutine.

module

n. 1. In programming, a collection of routines and data structures that performs a particular task or implements a particular abstract data type. Modules usually consist of two parts: an interface, which lists the constants, data types, variables, and routines that can be accessed by other modules or routines, and an implementation, which is private (accessible only to the module) and which contains the source code that actually implements the routines in the module. See also abstract data type, information hiding, Modula-2, modular programming. 2. In hardware, a self-contained component that can provide a complete function to a system and can be interchanged with other modules that provide similar functions. See also memory card, SIMM.

interface

n. 1. The point at which a connection is made between two elements so that they can work with each other or exchange information. 2. Software that enables a program to work with the user (the user interface, which can be a command-line interface, menu-driven, or a graphical user interface), with another program such as the operating system, or with the computer's hardware. See also application programming interface, graphical user interface. 3. A card, plug, or other device that connects pieces of hardware with the computer so that information can be moved from place to place. For example, standardized interfaces such as RS-232-C standard and SCSI enable communications between computers and printers or disks. See also RS-232-C standard, SCSI.

application programming interface

n. A set of routines used by an application program to direct the performance of procedures by the computer's operating system. Acronym: API. Also called application program interface.

graphical user interface/  15dec04

n. A visual computer environment that represents programs, files, and options with graphical images, such as icons, menus, and dialog boxes on the screen. The user can select and activate these options by pointing and clicking with a mouse or, often, with the keyboard. A particular item (such as a scroll bar) works the same way to the user in all applications, because the graphical user interface provides standard software routines to handle these elements and report the user's actions (such as a mouse click on a particular icon or at a particular location in text, or a key press); applications call these routines with specific parameters rather than attempting to reproduce them from scratch. Acronym: GUI.

operating system

n. The software that controls the allocation and usage of hardware resources such as memory, central processing unit (CPU) time, disk space, and peripheral devices. The operating system is the foundation software on which applications depend. Popular operating systems include Windows 98, Windows NT, Mac OS, and UNIX. Acronym: OS. Also called executive.

virtual

adj. Of or pertaining to a device, service, or sensory input that is perceived to be what it is not in actuality, usually as more "real" or concrete than it actually is.

polymorphism

n. In an object-oriented programming language, the ability to redefine a routine in a derived class (a class that inherited its data structures and routines from another class). Polymorphism allows the programmer to define a base class that includes routines that perform standard operations on groups of related objects, without regard to the exact type of each object. The programmer then redefines the routines in the derived class for each type, taking into account the characteristics of the object. See also class, derived class, object (definition 2), object-oriented programming.

programmable interrupt controller

n. An Intel chip that handles interrupt requests (IRQs). IBM AT machines use two programmable interrupt controllers to accommodate a maximum of 15 IRQs. The programmable interrupt controller has been replaced by the advanced programmable interrupt controller (APIC), which supports multiprocessing. Acronym: PIC. See also IBM AT, IRQ

spam1

n. An unsolicited e-mail message sent to many recipients at one time, or a news article posted simultaneously to many newsgroups. Spam is the electronic equivalent of junk mail. In most cases, the content of a spam message or article is not relevant to the topic of the newsgroup or the interests of the recipient; spam is an abuse of the Internet in order to distribute a message (usually commercial or religious) to a huge number of people at minimal cost.

spam2

vb. To distribute unwanted, unrequested mail widely on the Internet by posting a message to too many recipients or too many newsgroups. The act of distributing such mail, known as spamming, angers most Internet users and has been known to invite retaliation, often in the form of return spamming that can flood and possibly disable the electronic mailbox of the original spammer.
31dec05

filter

n. 1. A program or set of features within a program that reads its standard or designated input, transforms the input in some desired way, and then writes the output to its standard or designated output destination. A database filter, for example, might flag information of a certain age. 2. In communications and electronics, hardware or software that selectively passes certain elements of a signal and eliminates or minimizes others. A filter on a communications network, for example, must be designed to transmit a certain frequency but attenuate (dampen) frequencies above it (a lowpass filter), those below it (a highpass filter), or those above and below it (a bandpass filter). 3. A pattern or mask through which data is passed to weed out specified items. For instance, a filter used in e-mail or in retrieving newsgroup messages can allow users to filter out messages from other users. See also e-mail filter, mask. 4. In computer graphics, a special effect or production effect that is applied to bitmapped images; for example, shifting pixels within an image, making elements of the image transparent, or distorting the image. Some filters are built into a graphics program, such as a paint program or an image editor. Others are separate software packages that plug into the graphics program. See also bitmapped graphics, image editor, paint program.

e-mail filter

n. A feature in e-mail-reading software that automatically sorts incoming mail into different folders or mailboxes based on information contained in the message. For example, all incoming mail from a user's Uncle Joe might be placed in a folder labeled "Uncle Joe". Filters may also be used either to block or accept e-mail from designated sources.
n. Short for picture (pix) element. One spot in a rectilinear grid of thousands of such spots that are individually "painted" to form an image produced on the screen by a computer or on paper by a printer. A pixel is the smallest element that display or print hardware and software can manipulate in creating letters, numbers, or graphics. Also called pel.

pixel image

n. The representation of a color graphic in a computer's memory. A pixel image is similar to a bit image, which also describes a screen graphic, but a pixel image has an added dimension, sometimes called depth, that describes the number of bits in memory assigned to each on-screen pixel.

pixel map

n. A data structure that describes the pixel image of a graphic, including such features as color, image, resolution, dimensions, storage format, and number of bits used to describe each pixel. See also pixel, pixel image.
31dec05

BIOS

n. Acronym for basic input/output system. On PC-compatible computers, the set of essential software routines that tests hardware at startup, starts the operating system, and supports the transfer of data among hardware devices. The BIOS is stored in read-only memory (ROM) so that it can be executed when the computer is turned on. Although critical to performance, the BIOS is usually invisible to computer users. See also AMI BIOS, CMOS setup, Phoenix BIOS, ROM BIOS. Compare Toolbox.

flip-flop

n. A circuit that alternates between two possible states when a pulse is received at the input. For example, if the output of a flip-flop is high and a pulse is received at the input, the output "flips" to low; a second input pulse "flops" the output back to high, and so on. Also called bistable multivibrator

float

n. The data type name used in some programming languages, notably C, to declare variables that can store floating-point numbers. See also data type, floating-point number, variable

floating-point number

n. A number represented by a mantissa and an exponent according to a given base. The mantissa is usually a value between 0 and 1. To find the value of a floating-point number, the base is raised to the power of the exponent, and the mantissa is multiplied by the result. Ordinary scientific notation uses floating-point numbers with 10 as the base. In a computer, the base for floating-point numbers is usually 2.

floating-point operation

n. An arithmetic operation performed on data stored in floating-point notation. Floating-point operations are used wherever numbers may have either fractional or irrational parts, as in spreadsheets and computer-aided design (CAD). Therefore, one measure of a computer's power is how many millions of floating-point operations per second (MFLOPS or megaflops) it can perform. Acronym: FLOP. Also called floating-point operation. See also floating-point notation, MFLOfloating-point notation

fixed-point notation

n. A numeric format in which the decimal point has a specified position. Fixed-point numbers are a compromise between integral formats, which are compact and efficient, and floating-point numeric formats, which have a great range of values. Like floating-point numbers, fixed-point numbers can have a fractional part, but operations on fixed-point numbers usually take less time than floating-point operations. See also floating-point notation, integer.

integer

n. 1. A positive or negative "whole" number, such as 37, -50, or 764. 2. A data type representing whole numbers. Calculations involving only integers are much faster than calculations involving floating-point numbers, so integers are widely used in programming for counting and numbering purposes. Integers can be signed (positive or negative) or unsigned (positive). They can also be described as long or short, depending on the number of bytes needed to store them. Short integers, stored in 2 bytes, cover a smaller range of numbers (for example, -32,768 through 32,767) than do long integers (for example, -2,147,483,648 through 2,147,483,647), which are stored in 4 bytes. Also called integral number. See also floating-point notation

byte

n. Short for binary term. A unit of data, today almost always consisting of 8 bits. A byte can represent a single character, such as a letter, a digit, or a punctuation mark. Because a byte represents only a small amount of information, amounts of computer memory and storage are usually given in kilobytes (1,024 bytes), megabytes (1,048,576 bytes), or gigabytes (1,073,741,824 bytes). Abbreviation: B. See also bit, gigabyte, kilobyte, megabyte. Compare octet, word.

character

n. A letter, number, punctuation mark, or other symbol or control code that is represented to a computer by one unit-1 byte-of information. A character is not necessarily visible, either on the screen or on paper; a space, for example, is as much a character as is the letter a or any of the digits 0 through 9. Because computers must manage not only so-called printable characters but also the look (formatting) and transfer of electronically stored information, a character can additionally indicate a carriage return or a paragraph mark in a word-processed document. It can be a signal to sound a beep, begin a new page, or mark the end of a file. See also ASCII, control character, EBCDIC.

nibble or nybble

n. Half a byte (4 bits). Compare quadbit.

ascii

n. In an FTP client program, the command that instructs the FTP server to send or receive files as ASCII text. See also ASCII, FTP client Compare binary2

ASCII

n. Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A coding scheme using 7 or 8 bits that assigns numeric values to up to 256 characters, including letters, numerals, punctuation marks, control characters, and other symbols. ASCII was developed in 1968 to standardize data transmission among disparate hardware and software systems and is built into most minicomputers and all PCs. ASCII is divided into two sets: 128 characters (standard ASCII) and an additional 128 (extended ASCII). See also ASCII file, character, character code, control character, extended ASCII, standard ASCII. Compare EBCDIC.

ASCII character set

n. A standard 7-bit code for representing ASCII characters using binary values; code values range from 0 to 127. Most PC-based systems use an 8-bit extended ASCII code, with an extra 128 characters used to represent special symbols, foreign-language characters, and graphic symbols. See also ASCII, character, EBCDIC, extended ASCII, standard ASCII.

extended ASCII

n. Any set of characters assigned to ASCII values between decimal 128 and 255 (hexadecimal 80 through FF). The specific characters assigned to the extended ASCII codes vary between computers and between programs, fonts, or graphics characters. Extended ASCII adds capability by allowing for 128 additional characters, such as accented letters, graphics characters, and special symbols. See also ASCII.

C++

n. An object-oriented version of the C programming language, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in the early 1980s at Bell Laboratories and adopted by a number of vendors, including Apple Computer and Sun Microsystems, Inc. See also C, Objective-C, object-oriented programming.

object-oriented programming

n. A programming paradigm in which a program is viewed as a collection of discrete objects that are self-contained collections of data structures and routines that interact with other objects. Acronym: OOP. See also C++, object (definition 2), Objective-C.

object-oriented programming

n. A programming paradigm in which a program is viewed as a collection of discrete objects that are self-contained collections of data structures and routines that interact with other objects. Acronym: OOP. See also C++, object (definition 2), Objective-C.

object

n. 1. Short for object code (machine-readable code). 2. In object-oriented programming, a variable comprising both routines and data that is treated as a discrete entity. See also abstract data type, module (definition 1), object-oriented programming. 3. In graphics, a distinct entity. For example, a bouncing ball might be an object in a graphics program.

module

n. 1. In programming, a collection of routines and data structures that performs a particular task or implements a particular abstract data type. Modules usually consist of two parts: an interface, which lists the constants, data types, variables, and routines that can be accessed by other modules or routines, and an implementation, which is private (accessible only to the module) and which contains the source code that actually implements the routines in the module. See also abstract data type, information hiding, Modula-2, modular programming. 2. In hardware, a self-contained component that can provide a complete function to a system and can be interchanged with other modules that provide similar functions. See also memory card, SIMM.

abstract data type

n. In programming, a data set defined by the programmer in terms of the information it can contain and the operations that can be performed with it. An abstract data type is more generalized than a data type constrained by the properties of the objects it contains-for example, the data type "pet" is more generalized than the data types "pet dog," "pet bird," and "pet fish." The standard example used in illustrating an abstract data type is the stack", a small portion of memory used to store information, generally on a temporary basis. As an abstract data type, the stack is simply a structure onto which values can be pushed (added) and from which they can be popped (removed). The type of value, such as integer, is irrelevant to the definition.
The way in which the program performs operations on abstract data types is encapsulated, or hidden, from the rest of the program. Encapsulation enables the programmer to change the definition of the data type or its operations without introducing errors to the existing code that uses the abstract data type. Abstract data types represent an intermediate step between traditional programming and object-oriented programming. See also data type, object-oriented programming.

data type

n. In programming, a definition of a set of data that specifies the possible range of values of the set, the operations that can be performed on the values, and the way in which the values are stored in memory. Defining the data type allows a computer to manipulate the data appropriately. Data types are most often supported in high-level languages and often include types such as real, integer, floating point, character, Boolean, and pointer. How a language handles data typing is one of its major characteristics. See also cast, constant, enumerated data type, strong typing, type checking, user-defined data type, variable, weak typing.

toolbox

n. A set of predefined (and usually precompiled) routines a programmer can use in writing a program for a particular machine, environment, or application. Also called toolkit. See also library (definition 1).

Toolbox

n. A set of routines stored mostly in the read-only memory of a Macintosh that provides application programmers with the tools needed to support the graphical interface characteristic of the computer. Also called User Interface Toolbox.

disk drive

n. An electromechanical device that reads from and writes to disks. The main components of a disk drive include a spindle on which the disk is mounted, a drive motor that spins the disk when the drive is in operation, one or more read/write heads, a second motor that positions the read/write head(s) over the disk, and controller circuitry that synchronizes read/write activities and transfers information to and from the computer. Two types of disk drives are in common use: floppy disk drives and hard disk drives. Floppy disk drives are designed to accept removable disks in either 5.25-inch or 3.5-inch format; hard disk drives are faster, high-capacity storage units that are completely enclosed in a protective case.

paradigm

n. An archetypal example or pattern that provides a model for a process or system

architecture

n. 1. The physical construction or design of a computer system and its components. See also cache, CISC, closed architecture, network architecture, open architecture, pipelining, RISC. 2. The data-handling capacity of a microprocessor. 3. The design of application software incorporating protocols and the means for expansion and interfacing with other programs.

cache

\kash\ n. A special memory subsystem in which frequently used data values are duplicated for quick access. A memory cache stores the contents of frequently accessed RAM locations and the addresses where these data items are stored. When the processor references an address in memory, the cache checks to see whether it holds that address. If it does hold the address, the data is returned to the processor; if it does not, a regular memory access occurs. A cache is useful when RAM accesses are slow compared with the microprocessor speed, because cache memory is always faster than main RAM memory. See also disk cache, wait state.

disk

n. 1. A round, flat piece of flexible plastic coated with a magnetic material that can be electrically influenced to hold information recorded in digital (binary) form and encased in a protective plastic jacket to protect them from damage and contamination. Also called floppy, floppy disk, microfloppy disk. Compare compact disc, disc. 2. See hard drive

compact disc

n. 1. An optical storage medium for digital data, usually audio. A compact disc is a nonmagnetic, polished metal disc with a protective plastic coating that can hold up to 74 minutes of high-fidelity recorded sound. The disk is read by an optical scanning mechanism that uses a high-intensity light source, such as a laser, and mirrors. Also called optical disc. 2. A technology that forms the basis of media such as CD-ROM, CD-ROM/XA, CD-I, CD-R, DVI, and PhotoCD. These media are all compact disc-based but store various types of digital information and have different read/write capabilities. Documentation for compact disc formats can be found in books designated by the color of their covers. For example, documentation for audio compact discs is found in the Red Book. See also CD-I, CD-R, CD-ROM, CD-ROM/XA, DVI, Green Book (definition 2), Orange Book (definition 2), PhotoCD, Red Book (definition 2). 3. See CD.

disc

n. A round, flat piece of nonmagnetic, shiny metal encased in a plastic coating, designed to be read from and written to by optical (laser) technology. It is now standard practice to use the spelling disc for optical discs and disk in all other computer contexts, such as floppy disk, hard disk, and RAM disk. See also compact disc.

RS-232-C standard

n. An accepted industry standard for serial communications connections. Adopted by the Electrical Industries Association, this Recommended Standard (RS) defines the specific lines and signal characteristics used by serial communications controllers to standardize the transmission of serial data between devices. The letter C denotes that the current version of the standard is the third in a series. See also CTS, DSR, DTR, RTS, RXD, TXD.

interactive processing

n. Processing that involves the more or less continuous participation of the user. Such a command/response mode is characteristic of microcomputers. Compare batch processing (definition 2).

interactive program

n. A program that exchanges output and input with the user, who typically views a display of some sort and uses an input device, such as a keyboard, mouse, or joystick, to provide responses to the program. A computer game is an interactive program. Compare batch program.

handshake

n. A series of signals acknowledging that communication or the transfer of information can take place between computers or other devices. A hardware handshake is an exchange of signals over specific wires (other than the data wires), in which each device indicates its readiness to send or receive data. A software handshake consists of signals transmitted over the same wires used to transfer data, as in modem-to-modem communications over telephone lines.

31dec05

communications protocol

n. A set of rules or standards designed to enable computers to connect with one another and to exchange information with as little error as possible. The protocol generally accepted for standardizing overall computer communications is a seven-layer set of hardware and software guidelines known as the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model. A somewhat different standard, widely used before the OSI model was developed, is IBM's SNA (Systems Network Architecture). The word protocol is often used, sometimes confusingly, in reference to a multitude of standards affecting different aspects of communication, such as file transfer (for example, XMODEM and ZMODEM), handshaking (for example, XON/XOFF), and network transmissions (for example, CSMA/CD). See also ISO/OSI model, SNA.

TCP/IP

n. Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A protocol suite (or set of protocols) developed by the Department of Defense for communications over interconnected, sometimes dissimilar, networks. It is built into the UNIX system and has become the de facto standard for data transmission over networks, including the Internet
1jan2006

spam1

n. An unsolicited e-mail message sent to many recipients at one time, or a news article posted simultaneously to many newsgroups. Spam is the electronic equivalent of junk mail. In most cases, the content of a spam message or article is not relevant to the topic of the newsgroup or the interests of the recipient; spam is an abuse of the Internet in order to distribute a message (usually commercial or religious) to a huge number of people at minimal cost.

spam2

vb. To distribute unwanted, unrequested mail widely on the Internet by posting a message to too many recipients or too many newsgroups. The act of distributing such mail, known as spamming, angers most Internet users and has been known to invite retaliation, often in the form of return spamming that can flood and possibly disable the electronic mailbox of the original spammer
6jan06

ADSL

n. Acronym for asymmetric digital subscriber line. Technology and equipment allowing high-speed digital communication, including video signals, across an ordinary twisted-pair copper phone line, with speeds up to 8 Mbps (megabits per second) downstream (to the customer) and up to 640 Kbps (kilobits per second) upstream. ADSL access to the Internet is offered by some regional telephone companies, offering users faster connection times than those available through connections made over standard phone lines. Also called asymmetric digital subscriber loop. Compare SDSL.

SDSL

n. Acronym for symmetric (or single-line) digital subscriber line, a digital telecommunications technology that is a variation of HDSL. SDSL uses one pair of copper wire rather than two pairs of wires and transmits at 1.544 Mbps. Compare ADSL.
VoIP
n. Acronym for Voice over IP.
The use of the Internet Protocol (IP) for transmitting voice communications. VoIP delivers digitized audio in packet form and can be used for transmitting over intranets, extranets, and the Internet. It is essentially an inexpensive alternative to traditional telephone communication over the circuit-switched Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). VoIP covers computer-to-computer, computer-to-telephone, and telephone-based communications. For the sake of compatibility and interoperability, a group called the VoIP Forum promotes product development based on the ITU-T H.323 standard for transmission of multimedia over the Internet. Also called Internet telephony. See also H.323.

volatile memory

n. 1. Memory, such as RAM, that loses its data when the power is shut off. Compare nonvolatile memory. 2. Memory used by a program that can change independently of the program, such as memory shared by another program or by an interrupt service routine.

nonvolatile memory

n. A storage system that does not lose data when power is removed from it. Intended to refer to core memory, ROM, EPROM, flash memory, bubble memory, or battery-backed CMOS RAM, the term is occasionally used in reference to disk subsystems as well. See also bubble memory, CMOS RAM, core, EPROM, flash memory, ROM.

flash memory

n. A type of nonvolatile memory. Flash memory is similar to EEPROM memory in function but it must be erased in blocks, whereas EEPROM can be erased one byte at a time. Because of its block-oriented nature, flash memory is commonly used as a supplement to or replacement for hard disks in portable computers. In this context, flash memory either is built into the unit or, more commonly, is available as a PC Card that can be plugged into a PCMCIA slot. A disadvantage of the block-oriented nature of flash memory is that it cannot be practically used as main memory (RAM) because a computer needs to be able to write to memory in single-byte increments. See also EEPROM, nonvolatile memory, PC Card, PCMCIA slot

IP

n. Acronym for Internet Protocol. The protocol within TCP/IP that governs the breakup of data messages into packets, the routing of the packets from sender to destination network and station, and the reassembly of the packets into the original data messages at the destination. IP runs at the internetwork layer in the TCP/IP model-equivalent to the network layer in the ISO/OSI reference model. See also ISO/OSI reference model, TCP/IP. Compare TCP.

TCP

n. Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol. The protocol within TCP/IP that governs the breakup of data messages into packets to be sent via IP (Internet Protocol), and the reassembly and verification of the complete messages from packets received by IP. A connection-oriented, reliable protocol (reliable in the sense of ensuring error-free delivery), TCP corresponds to the transport layer in the ISO/OSI reference model. See also ISO/OSI reference model, packet, TCP/IP. Compare UDP.

packet

n. 1. A unit of information transmitted as a whole from one device to another on a network. 2. In packet-switching networks, a transmission unit of fixed maximum size that consists of binary digits representing both data and a header containing an identification number, source and destination addresses, and sometimes error-control data. See also packet switching.

USB

n. Acronym for universal serial bus. A serial bus with a data transfer rate of 12 megabits per second (Mbps) for connecting peripherals to a microcomputer. USB can connect up to 127 peripherals, such as external CD-ROM drives, printers, modems, mice, and keyboards, to the system through a single, general-purpose port. This is accomplished by daisy chaining peripherals together. USB is designed to support the ability to automatically add and configure new devices and the ability to add such devices without having to shut down and restart the system (hot plugging). USB was developed by Intel, Compaq, DEC, IBM, Microsoft, NEC, and Northern Telecom. It competes with DEC's ACCESS.bus for lower-speed applications. See also bus, daisy chain, hot plugging, input/output port, peripheral. Compare ACCESS.bus.

Micro Channel Architecture

n. The design of the bus in IBM PS/2 computers (except Models 25 and 30). The Micro Channel is electrically and physically incompatible with the IBM PC/AT bus. Unlike the PC/AT bus, the Micro Channel functions as either a 16-bit or a 32-bit bus. The Micro Channel also can be driven independently by multiple bus master processors.

PS/2 bus

bus

n. A set of hardware lines (conductors) used for data transfer among the components of a computer system. A bus is essentially a shared highway that connects different parts of the system-including the processor, disk-drive controller, memory, and input/output ports-and enables them to transfer information. The bus consists of specialized groups of lines that carry different types of information. One group of lines carries data; another carries memory addresses (locations) where data items are to be found; yet another carries control signals. Buses are characterized by the number of bits they can transfer at a single time, equivalent to the number of wires within the bus. A computer with a 32-bit address bus and a 16-bit data bus, for example, can transfer 16 bits of data at a time from any of 232 memory locations. Most PCs contain one or more expansion slots into which additional boards can be plugged to connect them to the bus.

hard disk

n. A device containing one or more inflexible platters coated with material in which data can be recorded magnetically, together with their read/write heads, the head-positioning mechanism, and the spindle motor in a sealed case that protects against outside contaminants. The protected environment allows the head to fly 10 to 25 millionths of an inch above the surface of a platter rotating typically at 3,600 to 7,200 rpm; therefore, much more data can be stored and accessed much more quickly than on a floppy disk. Most hard disks contain from two to eight platters. Also called hard disk drive. Compare floppy disk.

soft copy

n. The temporary images presented on a computer display screen. Compare hard copy.

hard copy

n. Printed output on paper, film, or other permanent medium. Compare soft copy.

URL

n. Acronym for Uniform Resource Locator. An address for a resource on the Internet. URLs are used by Web browsers to locate Internet resources. A URL specifies the protocol to be used in accessing the resource (such as http: for a World Wide Web page or ftp: for an FTP site), the name of the server on which the resource resides (such as //www.whitehouse.gov), and, optionally, the path to a resource (such as an HTML document or a file on that server). See also FTP1 (definition 1), HTML, HTTP, path (definition 1), server (definition 2), virtual path (definition 1), Web browser.

HDSL

n. Acronym for High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line. A form of DSL, HDSL is a protocol for digital transmission of data over standard copper telecommunications lines (as opposed to fiber-optic lines) at rates of 1.544 Mbps in both directions. Also called High-data-rate Digital Subscriber Line. See also DSL.

broadband

adj. Of or relating to communications systems in which the medium of transmission (such as a wire or fiber-optic cable) carries multiple messages at a time, each message modulated on its own carrier frequency by means of modems. Broadband communication is found in wide area networks. Compare baseband.
8JAN06

optical communications

n. The use of light and of light-transmitting technology, such as optical fibers and lasers, in sending and receiving data, images, or sound.
n. A disk drive that reads and often can write data on optical (compact) discs. Examples of optical drives include CD-ROM drives and WORM disk drives. See also CD-ROM drive, compact disc, WORM.

optical fiber

n. A thin strand of transparent material used to carry optical signals. Optical fibers are constructed from special kinds of glass and plastic, and they are designed so that a beam of light introduced at one end will remain within the fiber, reflecting off the inner surfaces as it travels down the length of the fiber. Optical fibers are inexpensive, compact, and lightweight and are often packaged many hundred to a single cable. See also fiber optics.

optical mouse

n. A type of mouse that uses a pair of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a special reflective grid pad to detect motion. The two lights are of different colors, and the special mouse pad has a grid of lines in the same colors, one color for vertical lines and another for horizontal lines. Light detectors paired with the LEDs sense when a colored light passes over a line of the same color, indicating the direction of movement. See also mouse. Compare mechanical mouse, optomechanical mouse.

fiber optics

n. A technology for the transmission of light beams along optical fibers. A light beam, such as that produced in a laser, can be modulated to carry information. Because light has a higher frequency on the electromagnetic spectrum than other types of radiation, such as radio waves, a single fiber-optic channel can carry significantly more information than most other means of information transmission. Optical fibers are thin strands of glass or other transparent material, with dozens or hundreds of strands housed in a single cable. Optical fibers are essentially immune to electromagnetic interference. See also optical fiber.

mechanical mouse

n. A type of mouse in which the motion of a ball on the bottom of the mouse is translated into directional signals. As the user moves the mouse, the ball rolls, turning a pair of wheels mounted at right angles inside the mouse that have conductive markings on their surfaces. Because the markings permit an electric current to flow, a set of conductive brushes that ride on the surface of the conductive wheels can detect these conductive markings. The electronics in the mouse translate these electrical movement signals into mouse-movement information that can be used by the computer. See also mouse, trackball. Compare optical mouse, optomechanical mouse.

voice recognition

n. The capability of a computer to understand the spoken word for the purpose of receiving commands and data input from the speaker. Systems that can recognize limited vocabularies as spoken by specific individuals have been developed, but developing a system that deals with a variety of speech patterns and accents, as well as with the various ways in which a request or a statement can be made, is more difficult, although advances are being made in this area. Also called speech recognition. See also artificial intelligence, dictation software, neural network.

neural network

n. A type of artificial-intelligence system modeled after the neurons (nerve cells) in a biological nervous system and intended to simulate the way a brain processes information, learns, and remembers. A neural network is designed as an interconnected system of processing elements, each with a limited number of inputs and an output. These processing elements are able to "learn" by receiving weighted inputs that, with adjustment, time, and repetition, can be made to produce appropriate outputs. Neural networks are used in areas such as pattern recognition, speech analysis, and speech synthesis. See also artificial intelligence, pattern recognition (definition 1).

pattern recognition

n. 1. A broad technology describing the ability of a computer to identify patterns. The term usually refers to computer recognition of visual images or sound patterns that have been converted to arrays of numbers. 2. The recognition of purely mathematical or textual patterns.

thumbnail

n. A miniature version of an image or electronic version of a page that is generally used to allow quick browsing through multiple images or pages. For example, Web pages often contain thumbnails of images (which can be loaded much more quickly by the Web browser than the full-size image). Many of these thumbnails can be clicked on to load the complete version of the image
25jan06wednes

ADSL

n. Acronym for asymmetric digital subscriber line. Technology and equipment allowing high-speed digital communication, including video signals, across an ordinary twisted-pair copper phone line, with speeds up to 8 Mbps (megabits per second) downstream (to the customer) and up to 640 Kbps (kilobits per second) upstream. ADSL access to the Internet is offered by some regional telephone companies, offering users faster connection times than those available through connections made over standard phone lines. Also called asymmetric digital subscriber loop. Compare SDSL.

Post Office Protocol

n. A protocol for servers on the Internet that receive, store, and transmit e-mail and for clients on computers that connect to the servers to download and upload e-mail. Acronym: POP.
25jan06

digital signal processor

n. An integrated circuit designed for high-speed data manipulation and used in audio, communications, image manipulation, and other data acquisition and data control applications. Acronym: DSP

hardware

n. The physical components of a computer system, including any peripheral equipment such as printers, modems, and mouse devices. Compare firmware, software
26jan06

cookie

n. 1. A block of data that a server returns to a client in response to a request from the client. 2. On the World Wide Web, a block of data that a Web server stores on a client system. When a user returns to the same Web site, the browser sends a copy of the cookie back to the server. Cookies are used to identify users, to instruct the server to send a customized version of the requested Web page, to submit account information for the user, and for other administrative purposes. 3. Originally an allusion to fortune cookie, a UNIX program that outputs a different message, or "fortune", each time it is used. On some systems, the cookie program is run during user logon.

cache

\kash\ n. A special memory subsystem in which frequently used data values are duplicated for quick access. A memory cache stores the contents of frequently accessed RAM locations and the addresses where these data items are stored. When the processor references an address in memory, the cache checks to see whether it holds that address. If it does hold the address, the data is returned to the processor; if it does not, a regular memory access occurs. A cache is useful when RAM accesses are slow compared with the microprocessor speed, because cache memory is always faster than main RAM memory. See also disk cache, wait state.

benchmark1

n. A test used to measure hardware or software performance. Benchmarks for hardware use programs that test the capabilities of the equipment-for example, the speed at which a CPU can execute instructions or handle floating-point numbers. Benchmarks for software determine the efficiency, accuracy, or speed of a program in performing a particular task, such as recalculating data in a spreadsheet. The same data is used with each program tested, so the resulting scores can be compared to see which programs perform well and in what areas. The design of fair benchmarks is something of an art, because various combinations of hardware and software can exhibit widely variable performance under different conditions. Often, after a benchmark has become a standard, developers try to optimize a product to run that benchmark faster than similar products run it in order to enhance sales. See also sieve of Eratosthenes.

benchmark2

vb. To measure the performance of hardware or software.

benign virus

n. A program that exhibits properties of a virus, such as self-replication, but does not otherwise do harm to the computer systems that it infects.
2feb06

thumbnail

n. A miniature version of an image or electronic version of a page that is generally used to allow quick browsing through multiple images or pages. For example, Web pages often contain thumbnails of images (which can be loaded much more quickly by the Web browser than the full-size image). Many of these thumbnails can be clicked on to load the complete version of the image.
MP3
n. Acronym for MPEG Audio Layer-3. A digital audio coding scheme used in distributing recorded music over the Internet. MP3 shrinks the size of an audio file by a factor of 10 to 12 without seriously degrading the quality (CD-recording level) of the sound. MP3 files are given the file extension .mp3. Although MP3 is part of the MPEG family, it is audio-only and is not the same as the now-defunct MPEG-3 standard

string

n. A data structure composed of a sequence of characters usually representing human-readable text.

array

n. In programming, a list of data values, all of the same type, any element of which can be referenced by an expression consisting of the array name followed by an indexing expression. Arrays are part of the fundamentals of data structures, which, in turn, are a major fundamental of computer programming. See also array element, index, record1, vector.

vector

n. 1. In mathematics and physics, a variable that has both distance and direction. Compare scalar. 2. In computer graphics, a line drawn in a certain direction from a starting point to an endpoint, both of whose locations are identified by the computer using x-y-coordinates on a grid. Vectors are used in the output of some graphics programs instead of groups of dots (on paper) or pixels (on screen). See also vector graphics. 3. In data structures, a one-dimensional array-a set of items arranged in a single column or row. See also array, matrix.

matrix

n. An arrangement of rows and columns used for organizing related items, such as numbers, dots, spreadsheet cells, or circuit elements. Matrices are used in mathematics for manipulating rectangular sets of numbers. In computing and computer applications, matrices are used for the similar purpose of arranging sets of data in table form, as in spreadsheets and lookup tables. In hardware, matrices of dots are used in creating characters on the screen as well as in print (as by dot-matrix printers). In electronics, matrices of diodes or transistors are used to create networks of logic circuits for such purposes as encoding, decoding, or converting information. See also grid.

grid

n. 1. Two sets of lines or linear elements at right angles to each other. 2. A spreadsheet is a grid of rows and columns; a graphics screen is a grid of horizontal and vertical lines of pixels. 3. In optical character recognition, a grid is used for measuring or specifying characters. See also Cartesian coordinates.

data stream

n. An undifferentiated, byte-by-byte flow of data.

data structure

n. An organizational scheme, such as a record or array, that can be applied to data to facilitate interpreting the data or performing operations on it.

byte

n. Short for binary term. A unit of data, today almost always consisting of 8 bits. A byte can represent a single character, such as a letter, a digit, or a punctuation mark. Because a byte represents only a small amount of information, amounts of computer memory and storage are usually given in kilobytes (1,024 bytes), megabytes (1,048,576 bytes), or gigabytes (1,073,741,824 bytes). Abbreviation: B. See also bit, gigabyte, kilobyte, megabyte. Compare octet, word.

character

n. A letter, number, punctuation mark, or other symbol or control code that is represented to a computer by one unit-1 byte-of information. A character is not necessarily visible, either on the screen or on paper; a space, for example, is as much a character as is the letter a or any of the digits 0 through 9. Because computers must manage not only so-called printable characters but also the look (formatting) and transfer of electronically stored information, a character can additionally indicate a carriage return or a paragraph mark in a word-processed document. It can be a signal to sound a beep, begin a new page, or mark the end of a file. See also ASCII, control character, EBCDIC.

assembly language

n. A low-level programming language using abbreviations or mnemonic codes in which each statement corresponds to a single machine instruction. An assembly language is translated to machine language by the assembler and is specific to a given processor. Advantages of using an assembly language include increased execution speed and direct programmer interaction with system hardware. See also assembler, compiler, high-level language, low-level language, machine code.

assembler

n. A program that converts assembly language programs, which are understandable by humans, into executable machine language. See also assemble, assembly language, assembly listing, compiler (definition 2), machine code.

compiler

n. 1. Any program that transforms one set of symbols into another by following a set of syntactic and semantic rules. 2. A program that translates all the source code of a program written in a high-level language into object code prior to execution of the program. See also assembler, compile, high-level language, interpreted language, language processor, object code.

high-level language

n. A computer language that provides a level of abstraction from the underlying machine language. Statements in a high-level language generally use keywords similar to English and translate into more than one machine-language instruction. In practice, every computer language above assembly language is a high-level language. Acronym: HLL. Also called high-order language. Compare assembly language.

machine code

n. The ultimate result of the compilation of assembly language or any high-level language such as C or Pascal: sequences of 1s and 0s that are loaded and executed by a microprocessor. Machine code is the only language computers understand; all other programming languages represent ways of structuring human language so that humans can get computers to perform specific tasks. Also called machine language. See also compiler (definition 2).

syntax

n. The grammar of a language; the rules governing the structure and content of statements. See also logic, programming language, syntax error. Compare semantics (definition 1).

semantics

n. 1. In programming, the relationship between words or symbols and their intended meanings.
Programming languages are subject to certain semantic rules; thus, a program statement can be syntactically correct but semantically incorrect; that is, a statement can be written in an acceptable form and still convey the wrong meaning. See also syntax. 2. In artificial-intelligence research, the capacity of a network to represent relationships among objects, ideas, or situations in a humanlike way. Compare syntax.

floating-point notation

n. A numeric format that can be used to represent very large real numbers and very small real numbers. Floating-point numbers are stored in two parts, a mantissa and an exponent. The mantissa specifies the digits in the number, and the exponent specifies the magnitude of the number (the position of the decimal point). For example, the numbers 314,600,000 and 0.0000451 are expressed respectively as 3146E5 and 451E-7 in floating-point notation. Most microprocessors do not directly support floating-point arithmetic; consequently, floating-point calculations are performed either by using software or with a special floating-point processor. Also called exponential notation. See also fixed-point notation, floating-point processor, integer.

floating-point number

n. A number represented by a mantissa and an exponent according to a given base. The mantissa is usually a value between 0 and 1. To find the value of a floating-point number, the base is raised to the power of the exponent, and the mantissa is multiplied by the result. Ordinary scientific notation uses floating-point numbers with 10 as the base. In a computer, the base for floating-point numbers is usually 2.

floating-point operation

n. An arithmetic operation performed on data stored in floating-point notation. Floating-point operations are used wherever numbers may have either fractional or irrational parts, as in spreadsheets and computer-aided design (CAD). Therefore, one measure of a computer's power is how many millions of floating-point operations per second (MFLOPS or megaflops) it can perform. Acronym: FLOP. Also called floating-point operation. See also floating-point notation, MFLOPS.

integer

n. 1. A positive or negative "whole" number, such as 37, -50, or 764. 2. A data type representing whole numbers. Calculations involving only integers are much faster than calculations involving floating-point numbers, so integers are widely used in programming for counting and numbering purposes. Integers can be signed (positive or negative) or unsigned (positive). They can also be described as long or short, depending on the number of bytes needed to store them. Short integers, stored in 2 bytes, cover a smaller range of numbers (for example, -32,768 through 32,767) than do long integers (for example, -2,147,483,648 through 2,147,483,647), which are stored in 4 bytes. Also called integral number. See also floating-point notatio

MAW: Learning Computer words./ my darling. 11 dec. 2017. https://nyeinchansarpay.blogspot.com/2017/12/learning-computer-words-11-dec-2017.html?spref=tw

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Learning computer words/ my darling . 24 pages.
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direct memory access29sep04

n. Memory access that does not involve the microprocessor and is frequently used for data transfer directly between memory and an intelligent peripheral device, such as a disk drive. Acronym: DMA.
n. An object-oriented version of the C programming language, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in the early 1980s at Bell Laboratories and adopted by a number of vendors, including Apple Computer and Sun Microsystems, Inc. See also C, Objective-C, object-oriented programming.
ISV’s independent software vendors/8dec04

abstract data type/ 2dec04

n. In programming, a data set defined by the programmer in terms of the information it can contain and the operations that can be performed with it. An abstract data type is more generalized than a data type constrained by the properties of the objects it contains-for example, the data type "pet" is more generalized than the data types "pet dog," "pet bird," and "pet fish." The standard example used in illustrating an abstract data type is the stack", a small portion of memory used to store information, generally on a temporary basis. As an abstract data type, the stack is simply a structure onto which values can be pushed (added) and from which they can be popped (removed). The type of value, such as integer, is irrelevant to the definition.
The way in which the program performs operations on abstract data types is encapsulated, or hidden, from the rest of the program. Encapsulation enables the programmer to change the definition of the data type or its operations without introducing errors to the existing code that uses the abstract data type. Abstract data types represent an intermediate step between traditional programming and object-oriented programming. See also data type, object-oriented programming.

encapsulation

n. In object-oriented programming, the packaging of attributes (properties) and functionality (methods or behaviors) to create an object that is essentially a black box—one whose internal structure remains private and whose services can be accessed by other objects only through messages passed via a clearly defined interface (the programming equivalent of a mailbox or telephone line). Encapsulation ensures that the object providing service can prevent other objects from manipulating its data or procedures directly, and it enables the object requesting service to ignore the details of how that service is provided. See also information hiding.

fuzzy logic

n. A form of logic used in some expert systems and other artificial-intelligence applications in which variables can have degrees of truthfulness or falsehood represented by a range of values between 1 (true) and 0 (false). With fuzzy logic, the outcome of an operation can be expressed as a probability rather than as a certainty. For example, an outcome might be probably true, possibly true, possibly false, or probably false. See also expert system.

expert system/ 2dec04

n. An application program that makes decisions or solves problems in a particular field, such as finance or medicine, by using knowledge and analytical rules defined by experts in the field. It uses two components, a knowledge base and an inference engine, to form conclusions. Additional tools include user interfaces and explanation facilities, which enable the system to justify or explain its conclusions as well as allowing developers to run checks on the operating system. See also artificial intelligence, inference engine, intelligent database,   encapsulation

n. In object-oriented programming, the packaging of attributes (properties) and functionality (methods or behaviors) to create an object that is essentially a black box—one whose internal structure remains private and whose services can be accessed by other objects only through messages passed via a clearly defined interface (the programming equivalent of a mailbox or telephone line). Encapsulation ensures that the object providing service can prevent other objects from manipulating its data or procedures directly, and it enables the object requesting service to ignore the details of how that service is provided. See also information hiding.

black box

n. A unit of hardware or software whose internal structure is unknown but whose function is documented. The internal mechanics of the function do not matter to a designer who uses a black box to obtain that function. For example, a memory chip can be viewed as a black box. Many people use memory chips and design them into computers, but generally only memory chip designers need to understand their internal operation.

encapsulate

vb. 1. To treat a collection of structured information as a whole without affecting or taking notice of its internal structure. In communications, a message or packet constructed according to one protocol, such as a TCP/IP packet, may be taken with its formatting data as an undifferentiated stream of bits that is then broken up and packaged according to a lower-level protocol (for example, as ATM packets) to be sent over a particular network; at the destination, the lower-level packets are assembled, re-creating the message as formatted for the encapsulated protocol. See also ATM (definition 1). 2. In object-oriented programming, to keep the implementation details of a class a separate file whose contents do not need to be known by a programmer using that class. See also object-oriented programming, TCP/IP.

information hiding

n. A design practice in which implementation details for both data structures and algorithms within a module or subroutine are hidden from routines using that module or subroutine, so as to ensure that those routines do not depend on some particular detail of the implementation. In theory, information hiding allows the module or subroutine to be changed without breaking the routines that use it. See also break, module, routine, subroutine.

module

n. 1. In programming, a collection of routines and data structures that performs a particular task or implements a particular abstract data type. Modules usually consist of two parts: an interface, which lists the constants, data types, variables, and routines that can be accessed by other modules or routines, and an implementation, which is private (accessible only to the module) and which contains the source code that actually implements the routines in the module. See also abstract data type, information hiding, Modula-2, modular programming. 2. In hardware, a self-contained component that can provide a complete function to a system and can be interchanged with other modules that provide similar functions. See also memory card, SIMM.

interface

n. 1. The point at which a connection is made between two elements so that they can work with each other or exchange information. 2. Software that enables a program to work with the user (the user interface, which can be a command-line interface, menu-driven, or a graphical user interface), with another program such as the operating system, or with the computer's hardware. See also application programming interface, graphical user interface. 3. A card, plug, or other device that connects pieces of hardware with the computer so that information can be moved from place to place. For example, standardized interfaces such as RS-232-C standard and SCSI enable communications between computers and printers or disks. See also RS-232-C standard, SCSI.

application programming interface

n. A set of routines used by an application program to direct the performance of procedures by the computer's operating system. Acronym: API. Also called application program interface.

graphical user interface/  15dec04

n. A visual computer environment that represents programs, files, and options with graphical images, such as icons, menus, and dialog boxes on the screen. The user can select and activate these options by pointing and clicking with a mouse or, often, with the keyboard. A particular item (such as a scroll bar) works the same way to the user in all applications, because the graphical user interface provides standard software routines to handle these elements and report the user's actions (such as a mouse click on a particular icon or at a particular location in text, or a key press); applications call these routines with specific parameters rather than attempting to reproduce them from scratch. Acronym: GUI.

operating system

n. The software that controls the allocation and usage of hardware resources such as memory, central processing unit (CPU) time, disk space, and peripheral devices. The operating system is the foundation software on which applications depend. Popular operating systems include Windows 98, Windows NT, Mac OS, and UNIX. Acronym: OS. Also called executive.

virtual

adj. Of or pertaining to a device, service, or sensory input that is perceived to be what it is not in actuality, usually as more "real" or concrete than it actually is.

polymorphism

n. In an object-oriented programming language, the ability to redefine a routine in a derived class (a class that inherited its data structures and routines from another class). Polymorphism allows the programmer to define a base class that includes routines that perform standard operations on groups of related objects, without regard to the exact type of each object. The programmer then redefines the routines in the derived class for each type, taking into account the characteristics of the object. See also class, derived class, object (definition 2), object-oriented programming.

programmable interrupt controller

n. An Intel chip that handles interrupt requests (IRQs). IBM AT machines use two programmable interrupt controllers to accommodate a maximum of 15 IRQs. The programmable interrupt controller has been replaced by the advanced programmable interrupt controller (APIC), which supports multiprocessing. Acronym: PIC. See also IBM AT, IRQ

spam1

n. An unsolicited e-mail message sent to many recipients at one time, or a news article posted simultaneously to many newsgroups. Spam is the electronic equivalent of junk mail. In most cases, the content of a spam message or article is not relevant to the topic of the newsgroup or the interests of the recipient; spam is an abuse of the Internet in order to distribute a message (usually commercial or religious) to a huge number of people at minimal cost.

spam2

vb. To distribute unwanted, unrequested mail widely on the Internet by posting a message to too many recipients or too many newsgroups. The act of distributing such mail, known as spamming, angers most Internet users and has been known to invite retaliation, often in the form of return spamming that can flood and possibly disable the electronic mailbox of the original spammer.
31dec05

filter

n. 1. A program or set of features within a program that reads its standard or designated input, transforms the input in some desired way, and then writes the output to its standard or designated output destination. A database filter, for example, might flag information of a certain age. 2. In communications and electronics, hardware or software that selectively passes certain elements of a signal and eliminates or minimizes others. A filter on a communications network, for example, must be designed to transmit a certain frequency but attenuate (dampen) frequencies above it (a lowpass filter), those below it (a highpass filter), or those above and below it (a bandpass filter). 3. A pattern or mask through which data is passed to weed out specified items. For instance, a filter used in e-mail or in retrieving newsgroup messages can allow users to filter out messages from other users. See also e-mail filter, mask. 4. In computer graphics, a special effect or production effect that is applied to bitmapped images; for example, shifting pixels within an image, making elements of the image transparent, or distorting the image. Some filters are built into a graphics program, such as a paint program or an image editor. Others are separate software packages that plug into the graphics program. See also bitmapped graphics, image editor, paint program.

e-mail filter

n. A feature in e-mail-reading software that automatically sorts incoming mail into different folders or mailboxes based on information contained in the message. For example, all incoming mail from a user's Uncle Joe might be placed in a folder labeled "Uncle Joe". Filters may also be used either to block or accept e-mail from designated sources.
n. Short for picture (pix) element. One spot in a rectilinear grid of thousands of such spots that are individually "painted" to form an image produced on the screen by a computer or on paper by a printer. A pixel is the smallest element that display or print hardware and software can manipulate in creating letters, numbers, or graphics. Also called pel.

pixel image

n. The representation of a color graphic in a computer's memory. A pixel image is similar to a bit image, which also describes a screen graphic, but a pixel image has an added dimension, sometimes called depth, that describes the number of bits in memory assigned to each on-screen pixel.

pixel map

n. A data structure that describes the pixel image of a graphic, including such features as color, image, resolution, dimensions, storage format, and number of bits used to describe each pixel. See also pixel, pixel image.
31dec05

BIOS

n. Acronym for basic input/output system. On PC-compatible computers, the set of essential software routines that tests hardware at startup, starts the operating system, and supports the transfer of data among hardware devices. The BIOS is stored in read-only memory (ROM) so that it can be executed when the computer is turned on. Although critical to performance, the BIOS is usually invisible to computer users. See also AMI BIOS, CMOS setup, Phoenix BIOS, ROM BIOS. Compare Toolbox.

flip-flop

n. A circuit that alternates between two possible states when a pulse is received at the input. For example, if the output of a flip-flop is high and a pulse is received at the input, the output "flips" to low; a second input pulse "flops" the output back to high, and so on. Also called bistable multivibrator

float

n. The data type name used in some programming languages, notably C, to declare variables that can store floating-point numbers. See also data type, floating-point number, variable

floating-point number

n. A number represented by a mantissa and an exponent according to a given base. The mantissa is usually a value between 0 and 1. To find the value of a floating-point number, the base is raised to the power of the exponent, and the mantissa is multiplied by the result. Ordinary scientific notation uses floating-point numbers with 10 as the base. In a computer, the base for floating-point numbers is usually 2.

floating-point operation

n. An arithmetic operation performed on data stored in floating-point notation. Floating-point operations are used wherever numbers may have either fractional or irrational parts, as in spreadsheets and computer-aided design (CAD). Therefore, one measure of a computer's power is how many millions of floating-point operations per second (MFLOPS or megaflops) it can perform. Acronym: FLOP. Also called floating-point operation. See also floating-point notation, MFLOfloating-point notation

fixed-point notation

n. A numeric format in which the decimal point has a specified position. Fixed-point numbers are a compromise between integral formats, which are compact and efficient, and floating-point numeric formats, which have a great range of values. Like floating-point numbers, fixed-point numbers can have a fractional part, but operations on fixed-point numbers usually take less time than floating-point operations. See also floating-point notation, integer.

integer

n. 1. A positive or negative "whole" number, such as 37, -50, or 764. 2. A data type representing whole numbers. Calculations involving only integers are much faster than calculations involving floating-point numbers, so integers are widely used in programming for counting and numbering purposes. Integers can be signed (positive or negative) or unsigned (positive). They can also be described as long or short, depending on the number of bytes needed to store them. Short integers, stored in 2 bytes, cover a smaller range of numbers (for example, -32,768 through 32,767) than do long integers (for example, -2,147,483,648 through 2,147,483,647), which are stored in 4 bytes. Also called integral number. See also floating-point notation

byte

n. Short for binary term. A unit of data, today almost always consisting of 8 bits. A byte can represent a single character, such as a letter, a digit, or a punctuation mark. Because a byte represents only a small amount of information, amounts of computer memory and storage are usually given in kilobytes (1,024 bytes), megabytes (1,048,576 bytes), or gigabytes (1,073,741,824 bytes). Abbreviation: B. See also bit, gigabyte, kilobyte, megabyte. Compare octet, word.

character

n. A letter, number, punctuation mark, or other symbol or control code that is represented to a computer by one unit-1 byte-of information. A character is not necessarily visible, either on the screen or on paper; a space, for example, is as much a character as is the letter a or any of the digits 0 through 9. Because computers must manage not only so-called printable characters but also the look (formatting) and transfer of electronically stored information, a character can additionally indicate a carriage return or a paragraph mark in a word-processed document. It can be a signal to sound a beep, begin a new page, or mark the end of a file. See also ASCII, control character, EBCDIC.

nibble or nybble

n. Half a byte (4 bits). Compare quadbit.

ascii

n. In an FTP client program, the command that instructs the FTP server to send or receive files as ASCII text. See also ASCII, FTP client Compare binary2

ASCII

n. Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A coding scheme using 7 or 8 bits that assigns numeric values to up to 256 characters, including letters, numerals, punctuation marks, control characters, and other symbols. ASCII was developed in 1968 to standardize data transmission among disparate hardware and software systems and is built into most minicomputers and all PCs. ASCII is divided into two sets: 128 characters (standard ASCII) and an additional 128 (extended ASCII). See also ASCII file, character, character code, control character, extended ASCII, standard ASCII. Compare EBCDIC.

ASCII character set

n. A standard 7-bit code for representing ASCII characters using binary values; code values range from 0 to 127. Most PC-based systems use an 8-bit extended ASCII code, with an extra 128 characters used to represent special symbols, foreign-language characters, and graphic symbols. See also ASCII, character, EBCDIC, extended ASCII, standard ASCII.

extended ASCII

n. Any set of characters assigned to ASCII values between decimal 128 and 255 (hexadecimal 80 through FF). The specific characters assigned to the extended ASCII codes vary between computers and between programs, fonts, or graphics characters. Extended ASCII adds capability by allowing for 128 additional characters, such as accented letters, graphics characters, and special symbols. See also ASCII.

C++

n. An object-oriented version of the C programming language, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in the early 1980s at Bell Laboratories and adopted by a number of vendors, including Apple Computer and Sun Microsystems, Inc. See also C, Objective-C, object-oriented programming.

object-oriented programming

n. A programming paradigm in which a program is viewed as a collection of discrete objects that are self-contained collections of data structures and routines that interact with other objects. Acronym: OOP. See also C++, object (definition 2), Objective-C.

object-oriented programming

n. A programming paradigm in which a program is viewed as a collection of discrete objects that are self-contained collections of data structures and routines that interact with other objects. Acronym: OOP. See also C++, object (definition 2), Objective-C.

object

n. 1. Short for object code (machine-readable code). 2. In object-oriented programming, a variable comprising both routines and data that is treated as a discrete entity. See also abstract data type, module (definition 1), object-oriented programming. 3. In graphics, a distinct entity. For example, a bouncing ball might be an object in a graphics program.

module

n. 1. In programming, a collection of routines and data structures that performs a particular task or implements a particular abstract data type. Modules usually consist of two parts: an interface, which lists the constants, data types, variables, and routines that can be accessed by other modules or routines, and an implementation, which is private (accessible only to the module) and which contains the source code that actually implements the routines in the module. See also abstract data type, information hiding, Modula-2, modular programming. 2. In hardware, a self-contained component that can provide a complete function to a system and can be interchanged with other modules that provide similar functions. See also memory card, SIMM.

abstract data type

n. In programming, a data set defined by the programmer in terms of the information it can contain and the operations that can be performed with it. An abstract data type is more generalized than a data type constrained by the properties of the objects it contains-for example, the data type "pet" is more generalized than the data types "pet dog," "pet bird," and "pet fish." The standard example used in illustrating an abstract data type is the stack", a small portion of memory used to store information, generally on a temporary basis. As an abstract data type, the stack is simply a structure onto which values can be pushed (added) and from which they can be popped (removed). The type of value, such as integer, is irrelevant to the definition.
The way in which the program performs operations on abstract data types is encapsulated, or hidden, from the rest of the program. Encapsulation enables the programmer to change the definition of the data type or its operations without introducing errors to the existing code that uses the abstract data type. Abstract data types represent an intermediate step between traditional programming and object-oriented programming. See also data type, object-oriented programming.

data type

n. In programming, a definition of a set of data that specifies the possible range of values of the set, the operations that can be performed on the values, and the way in which the values are stored in memory. Defining the data type allows a computer to manipulate the data appropriately. Data types are most often supported in high-level languages and often include types such as real, integer, floating point, character, Boolean, and pointer. How a language handles data typing is one of its major characteristics. See also cast, constant, enumerated data type, strong typing, type checking, user-defined data type, variable, weak typing.

toolbox

n. A set of predefined (and usually precompiled) routines a programmer can use in writing a program for a particular machine, environment, or application. Also called toolkit. See also library (definition 1).

Toolbox

n. A set of routines stored mostly in the read-only memory of a Macintosh that provides application programmers with the tools needed to support the graphical interface characteristic of the computer. Also called User Interface Toolbox.

disk drive

n. An electromechanical device that reads from and writes to disks. The main components of a disk drive include a spindle on which the disk is mounted, a drive motor that spins the disk when the drive is in operation, one or more read/write heads, a second motor that positions the read/write head(s) over the disk, and controller circuitry that synchronizes read/write activities and transfers information to and from the computer. Two types of disk drives are in common use: floppy disk drives and hard disk drives. Floppy disk drives are designed to accept removable disks in either 5.25-inch or 3.5-inch format; hard disk drives are faster, high-capacity storage units that are completely enclosed in a protective case.

paradigm

n. An archetypal example or pattern that provides a model for a process or system

architecture

n. 1. The physical construction or design of a computer system and its components. See also cache, CISC, closed architecture, network architecture, open architecture, pipelining, RISC. 2. The data-handling capacity of a microprocessor. 3. The design of application software incorporating protocols and the means for expansion and interfacing with other programs.

cache

\kash\ n. A special memory subsystem in which frequently used data values are duplicated for quick access. A memory cache stores the contents of frequently accessed RAM locations and the addresses where these data items are stored. When the processor references an address in memory, the cache checks to see whether it holds that address. If it does hold the address, the data is returned to the processor; if it does not, a regular memory access occurs. A cache is useful when RAM accesses are slow compared with the microprocessor speed, because cache memory is always faster than main RAM memory. See also disk cache, wait state.

disk

n. 1. A round, flat piece of flexible plastic coated with a magnetic material that can be electrically influenced to hold information recorded in digital (binary) form and encased in a protective plastic jacket to protect them from damage and contamination. Also called floppy, floppy disk, microfloppy disk. Compare compact disc, disc. 2. See hard drive

compact disc

n. 1. An optical storage medium for digital data, usually audio. A compact disc is a nonmagnetic, polished metal disc with a protective plastic coating that can hold up to 74 minutes of high-fidelity recorded sound. The disk is read by an optical scanning mechanism that uses a high-intensity light source, such as a laser, and mirrors. Also called optical disc. 2. A technology that forms the basis of media such as CD-ROM, CD-ROM/XA, CD-I, CD-R, DVI, and PhotoCD. These media are all compact disc-based but store various types of digital information and have different read/write capabilities. Documentation for compact disc formats can be found in books designated by the color of their covers. For example, documentation for audio compact discs is found in the Red Book. See also CD-I, CD-R, CD-ROM, CD-ROM/XA, DVI, Green Book (definition 2), Orange Book (definition 2), PhotoCD, Red Book (definition 2). 3. See CD.

disc

n. A round, flat piece of nonmagnetic, shiny metal encased in a plastic coating, designed to be read from and written to by optical (laser) technology. It is now standard practice to use the spelling disc for optical discs and disk in all other computer contexts, such as floppy disk, hard disk, and RAM disk. See also compact disc.

RS-232-C standard

n. An accepted industry standard for serial communications connections. Adopted by the Electrical Industries Association, this Recommended Standard (RS) defines the specific lines and signal characteristics used by serial communications controllers to standardize the transmission of serial data between devices. The letter C denotes that the current version of the standard is the third in a series. See also CTS, DSR, DTR, RTS, RXD, TXD.

interactive processing

n. Processing that involves the more or less continuous participation of the user. Such a command/response mode is characteristic of microcomputers. Compare batch processing (definition 2).

interactive program

n. A program that exchanges output and input with the user, who typically views a display of some sort and uses an input device, such as a keyboard, mouse, or joystick, to provide responses to the program. A computer game is an interactive program. Compare batch program.

handshake

n. A series of signals acknowledging that communication or the transfer of information can take place between computers or other devices. A hardware handshake is an exchange of signals over specific wires (other than the data wires), in which each device indicates its readiness to send or receive data. A software handshake consists of signals transmitted over the same wires used to transfer data, as in modem-to-modem communications over telephone lines.

31dec05

communications protocol

n. A set of rules or standards designed to enable computers to connect with one another and to exchange information with as little error as possible. The protocol generally accepted for standardizing overall computer communications is a seven-layer set of hardware and software guidelines known as the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model. A somewhat different standard, widely used before the OSI model was developed, is IBM's SNA (Systems Network Architecture). The word protocol is often used, sometimes confusingly, in reference to a multitude of standards affecting different aspects of communication, such as file transfer (for example, XMODEM and ZMODEM), handshaking (for example, XON/XOFF), and network transmissions (for example, CSMA/CD). See also ISO/OSI model, SNA.

TCP/IP

n. Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A protocol suite (or set of protocols) developed by the Department of Defense for communications over interconnected, sometimes dissimilar, networks. It is built into the UNIX system and has become the de facto standard for data transmission over networks, including the Internet
1jan2006

spam1

n. An unsolicited e-mail message sent to many recipients at one time, or a news article posted simultaneously to many newsgroups. Spam is the electronic equivalent of junk mail. In most cases, the content of a spam message or article is not relevant to the topic of the newsgroup or the interests of the recipient; spam is an abuse of the Internet in order to distribute a message (usually commercial or religious) to a huge number of people at minimal cost.

spam2

vb. To distribute unwanted, unrequested mail widely on the Internet by posting a message to too many recipients or too many newsgroups. The act of distributing such mail, known as spamming, angers most Internet users and has been known to invite retaliation, often in the form of return spamming that can flood and possibly disable the electronic mailbox of the original spammer
6jan06

ADSL

n. Acronym for asymmetric digital subscriber line. Technology and equipment allowing high-speed digital communication, including video signals, across an ordinary twisted-pair copper phone line, with speeds up to 8 Mbps (megabits per second) downstream (to the customer) and up to 640 Kbps (kilobits per second) upstream. ADSL access to the Internet is offered by some regional telephone companies, offering users faster connection times than those available through connections made over standard phone lines. Also called asymmetric digital subscriber loop. Compare SDSL.

SDSL

n. Acronym for symmetric (or single-line) digital subscriber line, a digital telecommunications technology that is a variation of HDSL. SDSL uses one pair of copper wire rather than two pairs of wires and transmits at 1.544 Mbps. Compare ADSL.
VoIP
n. Acronym for Voice over IP.
The use of the Internet Protocol (IP) for transmitting voice communications. VoIP delivers digitized audio in packet form and can be used for transmitting over intranets, extranets, and the Internet. It is essentially an inexpensive alternative to traditional telephone communication over the circuit-switched Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). VoIP covers computer-to-computer, computer-to-telephone, and telephone-based communications. For the sake of compatibility and interoperability, a group called the VoIP Forum promotes product development based on the ITU-T H.323 standard for transmission of multimedia over the Internet. Also called Internet telephony. See also H.323.

volatile memory

n. 1. Memory, such as RAM, that loses its data when the power is shut off. Compare nonvolatile memory. 2. Memory used by a program that can change independently of the program, such as memory shared by another program or by an interrupt service routine.

nonvolatile memory

n. A storage system that does not lose data when power is removed from it. Intended to refer to core memory, ROM, EPROM, flash memory, bubble memory, or battery-backed CMOS RAM, the term is occasionally used in reference to disk subsystems as well. See also bubble memory, CMOS RAM, core, EPROM, flash memory, ROM.

flash memory

n. A type of nonvolatile memory. Flash memory is similar to EEPROM memory in function but it must be erased in blocks, whereas EEPROM can be erased one byte at a time. Because of its block-oriented nature, flash memory is commonly used as a supplement to or replacement for hard disks in portable computers. In this context, flash memory either is built into the unit or, more commonly, is available as a PC Card that can be plugged into a PCMCIA slot. A disadvantage of the block-oriented nature of flash memory is that it cannot be practically used as main memory (RAM) because a computer needs to be able to write to memory in single-byte increments. See also EEPROM, nonvolatile memory, PC Card, PCMCIA slot

IP

n. Acronym for Internet Protocol. The protocol within TCP/IP that governs the breakup of data messages into packets, the routing of the packets from sender to destination network and station, and the reassembly of the packets into the original data messages at the destination. IP runs at the internetwork layer in the TCP/IP model-equivalent to the network layer in the ISO/OSI reference model. See also ISO/OSI reference model, TCP/IP. Compare TCP.

TCP

n. Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol. The protocol within TCP/IP that governs the breakup of data messages into packets to be sent via IP (Internet Protocol), and the reassembly and verification of the complete messages from packets received by IP. A connection-oriented, reliable protocol (reliable in the sense of ensuring error-free delivery), TCP corresponds to the transport layer in the ISO/OSI reference model. See also ISO/OSI reference model, packet, TCP/IP. Compare UDP.

packet

n. 1. A unit of information transmitted as a whole from one device to another on a network. 2. In packet-switching networks, a transmission unit of fixed maximum size that consists of binary digits representing both data and a header containing an identification number, source and destination addresses, and sometimes error-control data. See also packet switching.

USB

n. Acronym for universal serial bus. A serial bus with a data transfer rate of 12 megabits per second (Mbps) for connecting peripherals to a microcomputer. USB can connect up to 127 peripherals, such as external CD-ROM drives, printers, modems, mice, and keyboards, to the system through a single, general-purpose port. This is accomplished by daisy chaining peripherals together. USB is designed to support the ability to automatically add and configure new devices and the ability to add such devices without having to shut down and restart the system (hot plugging). USB was developed by Intel, Compaq, DEC, IBM, Microsoft, NEC, and Northern Telecom. It competes with DEC's ACCESS.bus for lower-speed applications. See also bus, daisy chain, hot plugging, input/output port, peripheral. Compare ACCESS.bus.

Micro Channel Architecture

n. The design of the bus in IBM PS/2 computers (except Models 25 and 30). The Micro Channel is electrically and physically incompatible with the IBM PC/AT bus. Unlike the PC/AT bus, the Micro Channel functions as either a 16-bit or a 32-bit bus. The Micro Channel also can be driven independently by multiple bus master processors.

PS/2 bus

bus

n. A set of hardware lines (conductors) used for data transfer among the components of a computer system. A bus is essentially a shared highway that connects different parts of the system-including the processor, disk-drive controller, memory, and input/output ports-and enables them to transfer information. The bus consists of specialized groups of lines that carry different types of information. One group of lines carries data; another carries memory addresses (locations) where data items are to be found; yet another carries control signals. Buses are characterized by the number of bits they can transfer at a single time, equivalent to the number of wires within the bus. A computer with a 32-bit address bus and a 16-bit data bus, for example, can transfer 16 bits of data at a time from any of 232 memory locations. Most PCs contain one or more expansion slots into which additional boards can be plugged to connect them to the bus.

hard disk

n. A device containing one or more inflexible platters coated with material in which data can be recorded magnetically, together with their read/write heads, the head-positioning mechanism, and the spindle motor in a sealed case that protects against outside contaminants. The protected environment allows the head to fly 10 to 25 millionths of an inch above the surface of a platter rotating typically at 3,600 to 7,200 rpm; therefore, much more data can be stored and accessed much more quickly than on a floppy disk. Most hard disks contain from two to eight platters. Also called hard disk drive. Compare floppy disk.

soft copy

n. The temporary images presented on a computer display screen. Compare hard copy.

hard copy

n. Printed output on paper, film, or other permanent medium. Compare soft copy.

URL

n. Acronym for Uniform Resource Locator. An address for a resource on the Internet. URLs are used by Web browsers to locate Internet resources. A URL specifies the protocol to be used in accessing the resource (such as http: for a World Wide Web page or ftp: for an FTP site), the name of the server on which the resource resides (such as //www.whitehouse.gov), and, optionally, the path to a resource (such as an HTML document or a file on that server). See also FTP1 (definition 1), HTML, HTTP, path (definition 1), server (definition 2), virtual path (definition 1), Web browser.

HDSL

n. Acronym for High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line. A form of DSL, HDSL is a protocol for digital transmission of data over standard copper telecommunications lines (as opposed to fiber-optic lines) at rates of 1.544 Mbps in both directions. Also called High-data-rate Digital Subscriber Line. See also DSL.

broadband

adj. Of or relating to communications systems in which the medium of transmission (such as a wire or fiber-optic cable) carries multiple messages at a time, each message modulated on its own carrier frequency by means of modems. Broadband communication is found in wide area networks. Compare baseband.
8JAN06

optical communications

n. The use of light and of light-transmitting technology, such as optical fibers and lasers, in sending and receiving data, images, or sound.
n. A disk drive that reads and often can write data on optical (compact) discs. Examples of optical drives include CD-ROM drives and WORM disk drives. See also CD-ROM drive, compact disc, WORM.

optical fiber

n. A thin strand of transparent material used to carry optical signals. Optical fibers are constructed from special kinds of glass and plastic, and they are designed so that a beam of light introduced at one end will remain within the fiber, reflecting off the inner surfaces as it travels down the length of the fiber. Optical fibers are inexpensive, compact, and lightweight and are often packaged many hundred to a single cable. See also fiber optics.

optical mouse

n. A type of mouse that uses a pair of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a special reflective grid pad to detect motion. The two lights are of different colors, and the special mouse pad has a grid of lines in the same colors, one color for vertical lines and another for horizontal lines. Light detectors paired with the LEDs sense when a colored light passes over a line of the same color, indicating the direction of movement. See also mouse. Compare mechanical mouse, optomechanical mouse.

fiber optics

n. A technology for the transmission of light beams along optical fibers. A light beam, such as that produced in a laser, can be modulated to carry information. Because light has a higher frequency on the electromagnetic spectrum than other types of radiation, such as radio waves, a single fiber-optic channel can carry significantly more information than most other means of information transmission. Optical fibers are thin strands of glass or other transparent material, with dozens or hundreds of strands housed in a single cable. Optical fibers are essentially immune to electromagnetic interference. See also optical fiber.

mechanical mouse

n. A type of mouse in which the motion of a ball on the bottom of the mouse is translated into directional signals. As the user moves the mouse, the ball rolls, turning a pair of wheels mounted at right angles inside the mouse that have conductive markings on their surfaces. Because the markings permit an electric current to flow, a set of conductive brushes that ride on the surface of the conductive wheels can detect these conductive markings. The electronics in the mouse translate these electrical movement signals into mouse-movement information that can be used by the computer. See also mouse, trackball. Compare optical mouse, optomechanical mouse.

voice recognition

n. The capability of a computer to understand the spoken word for the purpose of receiving commands and data input from the speaker. Systems that can recognize limited vocabularies as spoken by specific individuals have been developed, but developing a system that deals with a variety of speech patterns and accents, as well as with the various ways in which a request or a statement can be made, is more difficult, although advances are being made in this area. Also called speech recognition. See also artificial intelligence, dictation software, neural network.

neural network

n. A type of artificial-intelligence system modeled after the neurons (nerve cells) in a biological nervous system and intended to simulate the way a brain processes information, learns, and remembers. A neural network is designed as an interconnected system of processing elements, each with a limited number of inputs and an output. These processing elements are able to "learn" by receiving weighted inputs that, with adjustment, time, and repetition, can be made to produce appropriate outputs. Neural networks are used in areas such as pattern recognition, speech analysis, and speech synthesis. See also artificial intelligence, pattern recognition (definition 1).

pattern recognition

n. 1. A broad technology describing the ability of a computer to identify patterns. The term usually refers to computer recognition of visual images or sound patterns that have been converted to arrays of numbers. 2. The recognition of purely mathematical or textual patterns.

thumbnail

n. A miniature version of an image or electronic version of a page that is generally used to allow quick browsing through multiple images or pages. For example, Web pages often contain thumbnails of images (which can be loaded much more quickly by the Web browser than the full-size image). Many of these thumbnails can be clicked on to load the complete version of the image
25jan06wednes

ADSL

n. Acronym for asymmetric digital subscriber line. Technology and equipment allowing high-speed digital communication, including video signals, across an ordinary twisted-pair copper phone line, with speeds up to 8 Mbps (megabits per second) downstream (to the customer) and up to 640 Kbps (kilobits per second) upstream. ADSL access to the Internet is offered by some regional telephone companies, offering users faster connection times than those available through connections made over standard phone lines. Also called asymmetric digital subscriber loop. Compare SDSL.

Post Office Protocol

n. A protocol for servers on the Internet that receive, store, and transmit e-mail and for clients on computers that connect to the servers to download and upload e-mail. Acronym: POP.
25jan06

digital signal processor

n. An integrated circuit designed for high-speed data manipulation and used in audio, communications, image manipulation, and other data acquisition and data control applications. Acronym: DSP

hardware

n. The physical components of a computer system, including any peripheral equipment such as printers, modems, and mouse devices. Compare firmware, software
26jan06

cookie

n. 1. A block of data that a server returns to a client in response to a request from the client. 2. On the World Wide Web, a block of data that a Web server stores on a client system. When a user returns to the same Web site, the browser sends a copy of the cookie back to the server. Cookies are used to identify users, to instruct the server to send a customized version of the requested Web page, to submit account information for the user, and for other administrative purposes. 3. Originally an allusion to fortune cookie, a UNIX program that outputs a different message, or "fortune", each time it is used. On some systems, the cookie program is run during user logon.

cache

\kash\ n. A special memory subsystem in which frequently used data values are duplicated for quick access. A memory cache stores the contents of frequently accessed RAM locations and the addresses where these data items are stored. When the processor references an address in memory, the cache checks to see whether it holds that address. If it does hold the address, the data is returned to the processor; if it does not, a regular memory access occurs. A cache is useful when RAM accesses are slow compared with the microprocessor speed, because cache memory is always faster than main RAM memory. See also disk cache, wait state.

benchmark1

n. A test used to measure hardware or software performance. Benchmarks for hardware use programs that test the capabilities of the equipment-for example, the speed at which a CPU can execute instructions or handle floating-point numbers. Benchmarks for software determine the efficiency, accuracy, or speed of a program in performing a particular task, such as recalculating data in a spreadsheet. The same data is used with each program tested, so the resulting scores can be compared to see which programs perform well and in what areas. The design of fair benchmarks is something of an art, because various combinations of hardware and software can exhibit widely variable performance under different conditions. Often, after a benchmark has become a standard, developers try to optimize a product to run that benchmark faster than similar products run it in order to enhance sales. See also sieve of Eratosthenes.

benchmark2

vb. To measure the performance of hardware or software.

benign virus

n. A program that exhibits properties of a virus, such as self-replication, but does not otherwise do harm to the computer systems that it infects.
2feb06

thumbnail

n. A miniature version of an image or electronic version of a page that is generally used to allow quick browsing through multiple images or pages. For example, Web pages often contain thumbnails of images (which can be loaded much more quickly by the Web browser than the full-size image). Many of these thumbnails can be clicked on to load the complete version of the image.
MP3
n. Acronym for MPEG Audio Layer-3. A digital audio coding scheme used in distributing recorded music over the Internet. MP3 shrinks the size of an audio file by a factor of 10 to 12 without seriously degrading the quality (CD-recording level) of the sound. MP3 files are given the file extension .mp3. Although MP3 is part of the MPEG family, it is audio-only and is not the same as the now-defunct MPEG-3 standard

string

n. A data structure composed of a sequence of characters usually representing human-readable text.

array

n. In programming, a list of data values, all of the same type, any element of which can be referenced by an expression consisting of the array name followed by an indexing expression. Arrays are part of the fundamentals of data structures, which, in turn, are a major fundamental of computer programming. See also array element, index, record1, vector.

vector

n. 1. In mathematics and physics, a variable that has both distance and direction. Compare scalar. 2. In computer graphics, a line drawn in a certain direction from a starting point to an endpoint, both of whose locations are identified by the computer using x-y-coordinates on a grid. Vectors are used in the output of some graphics programs instead of groups of dots (on paper) or pixels (on screen). See also vector graphics. 3. In data structures, a one-dimensional array-a set of items arranged in a single column or row. See also array, matrix.

matrix

n. An arrangement of rows and columns used for organizing related items, such as numbers, dots, spreadsheet cells, or circuit elements. Matrices are used in mathematics for manipulating rectangular sets of numbers. In computing and computer applications, matrices are used for the similar purpose of arranging sets of data in table form, as in spreadsheets and lookup tables. In hardware, matrices of dots are used in creating characters on the screen as well as in print (as by dot-matrix printers). In electronics, matrices of diodes or transistors are used to create networks of logic circuits for such purposes as encoding, decoding, or converting information. See also grid.

grid

n. 1. Two sets of lines or linear elements at right angles to each other. 2. A spreadsheet is a grid of rows and columns; a graphics screen is a grid of horizontal and vertical lines of pixels. 3. In optical character recognition, a grid is used for measuring or specifying characters. See also Cartesian coordinates.

data stream

n. An undifferentiated, byte-by-byte flow of data.

data structure

n. An organizational scheme, such as a record or array, that can be applied to data to facilitate interpreting the data or performing operations on it.

byte

n. Short for binary term. A unit of data, today almost always consisting of 8 bits. A byte can represent a single character, such as a letter, a digit, or a punctuation mark. Because a byte represents only a small amount of information, amounts of computer memory and storage are usually given in kilobytes (1,024 bytes), megabytes (1,048,576 bytes), or gigabytes (1,073,741,824 bytes). Abbreviation: B. See also bit, gigabyte, kilobyte, megabyte. Compare octet, word.

character

n. A letter, number, punctuation mark, or other symbol or control code that is represented to a computer by one unit-1 byte-of information. A character is not necessarily visible, either on the screen or on paper; a space, for example, is as much a character as is the letter a or any of the digits 0 through 9. Because computers must manage not only so-called printable characters but also the look (formatting) and transfer of electronically stored information, a character can additionally indicate a carriage return or a paragraph mark in a word-processed document. It can be a signal to sound a beep, begin a new page, or mark the end of a file. See also ASCII, control character, EBCDIC.

assembly language

n. A low-level programming language using abbreviations or mnemonic codes in which each statement corresponds to a single machine instruction. An assembly language is translated to machine language by the assembler and is specific to a given processor. Advantages of using an assembly language include increased execution speed and direct programmer interaction with system hardware. See also assembler, compiler, high-level language, low-level language, machine code.

assembler

n. A program that converts assembly language programs, which are understandable by humans, into executable machine language. See also assemble, assembly language, assembly listing, compiler (definition 2), machine code.

compiler

n. 1. Any program that transforms one set of symbols into another by following a set of syntactic and semantic rules. 2. A program that translates all the source code of a program written in a high-level language into object code prior to execution of the program. See also assembler, compile, high-level language, interpreted language, language processor, object code.

high-level language

n. A computer language that provides a level of abstraction from the underlying machine language. Statements in a high-level language generally use keywords similar to English and translate into more than one machine-language instruction. In practice, every computer language above assembly language is a high-level language. Acronym: HLL. Also called high-order language. Compare assembly language.

machine code

n. The ultimate result of the compilation of assembly language or any high-level language such as C or Pascal: sequences of 1s and 0s that are loaded and executed by a microprocessor. Machine code is the only language computers understand; all other programming languages represent ways of structuring human language so that humans can get computers to perform specific tasks. Also called machine language. See also compiler (definition 2).

syntax

n. The grammar of a language; the rules governing the structure and content of statements. See also logic, programming language, syntax error. Compare semantics (definition 1).

semantics

n. 1. In programming, the relationship between words or symbols and their intended meanings.
Programming languages are subject to certain semantic rules; thus, a program statement can be syntactically correct but semantically incorrect; that is, a statement can be written in an acceptable form and still convey the wrong meaning. See also syntax. 2. In artificial-intelligence research, the capacity of a network to represent relationships among objects, ideas, or situations in a humanlike way. Compare syntax.

floating-point notation

n. A numeric format that can be used to represent very large real numbers and very small real numbers. Floating-point numbers are stored in two parts, a mantissa and an exponent. The mantissa specifies the digits in the number, and the exponent specifies the magnitude of the number (the position of the decimal point). For example, the numbers 314,600,000 and 0.0000451 are expressed respectively as 3146E5 and 451E-7 in floating-point notation. Most microprocessors do not directly support floating-point arithmetic; consequently, floating-point calculations are performed either by using software or with a special floating-point processor. Also called exponential notation. See also fixed-point notation, floating-point processor, integer.

floating-point number

n. A number represented by a mantissa and an exponent according to a given base. The mantissa is usually a value between 0 and 1. To find the value of a floating-point number, the base is raised to the power of the exponent, and the mantissa is multiplied by the result. Ordinary scientific notation uses floating-point numbers with 10 as the base. In a computer, the base for floating-point numbers is usually 2.

floating-point operation

n. An arithmetic operation performed on data stored in floating-point notation. Floating-point operations are used wherever numbers may have either fractional or irrational parts, as in spreadsheets and computer-aided design (CAD). Therefore, one measure of a computer's power is how many millions of floating-point operations per second (MFLOPS or megaflops) it can perform. Acronym: FLOP. Also called floating-point operation. See also floating-point notation, MFLOPS.

integer

n. 1. A positive or negative "whole" number, such as 37, -50, or 764. 2. A data type representing whole numbers. Calculations involving only integers are much faster than calculations involving floating-point numbers, so integers are widely used in programming for counting and numbering purposes. Integers can be signed (positive or negative) or unsigned (positive). They can also be described as long or short, depending on the number of bytes needed to store them. Short integers, stored in 2 bytes, cover a smaller range of numbers (for example, -32,768 through 32,767) than do long integers (for example, -2,147,483,648 through 2,147,483,647), which are stored in 4 bytes. Also called integral number. See also floating-point notatio

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